3 Management and Motivation 82 Introduction 82 Motivation—The Concept 83 History of Motivation 84 Theories of Motivation

PTER 3 Management and Motivation 82 Introduction 82 Motivation—The Concept 83 History of Motivation 84 Theories of Motivation 85 A Bit More About Incentives and Rewards 89 Why Motivation Matters 91 Motivated vs. Engaged—Are the Terms the Same? 92 Measuring Engagement 93 Misconceptions About Motivation and Employee Satisfaction 94 Motivational and Engagement Strategies 96 Motivating Across Generations 99 Managing Across Generations 100 Research Opportunities in Management and Motivation 107 Conclusion 107

CHAPTER 4 Organizational Behavior and Management Thinking 115 Introduction 116 The Field of Organizational Behavior 117 Organizational Behavior’s Contribution to Management 117 Key Topics in Organizational Behavior 118 Organizational Behavior Issues in Health Organizations 118 Thinking: The “Inner Game” of Organizational Behavior 119 The Four Key Features of Thinking 121 Mental Representation: The Infrastucture of Thinking 122 Processing Information: Fundamental Thinking Habits 126 Decision Making, Problem Solving, and Biased Thinking Habits 131 Social Cognition and Socio-Emotional Intelligence 135 Research Opportunities in Organizational Behavior and Management Thinking 140 Conclusion 141

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CHAPTER 5 Strategic Planning 149 Introduction 149 Purpose and Importance of Strategic Planning 150 The Planning Process 150 SWOT Analysis 152 Strategy Identification and Selection 159 Rollout and Implementation 162 Outcomes Monitoring and Control 163 Strategy Execution 164 Strategic Planning and Execution: The Role of the Health Care Manager 165 Opportunities for Research in Strategic Planning 166 Conclusion 167

CHAPTER 6 Healthcare Marketing 170 Introduction 170 What Is Marketing? 171 A Brief History of Marketing in Health Care 172 The Strategic Marketing Process 175 Understanding Marketing Management 178 Health Care Buyer Behavior 181 Marketing Mix 183 Marketing Plan 184 Ethics and Social Responsibility 186 Opportunities for Research in Health Care Marketing 188 Conclusion 189

CHAPTER 7 Quality Improvement Basics 193 Introduction 193 Defining Quality in Health Care 194 Why Is Quality Important? 196 The Relevance of Health Information Technology in Quality Improvement 197 Quality Improvement Comes (Back) to America 198 Leaders of the Quality Movement 199 Baldrige Award Criteria: A Strategic Framework for Quality Improvement 200 Common Elements of Quality Improvement 202 Three Approaches to Quality Improvement 204 Quality Improvement Tools 210

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Opportunities for Research in Health Care Quality 214 Conclusion 216

CHAPTER 8 Information Technology 221 Introduction 221 Information Systems Used by Managers 223 The Electronic Medical Record (EMR) 226 The Challenges to Clinical System Adoption 231 The Future of Health Care Information Technology 239 The Impact of Information Technology on the Health Care Manager 247 Opportunities for Research on Health Care Professionals 249 Conclusion 250

CHAPTER 9 Financing Health Care and Health Insurance 261 Introduction 261 Introduction to Health Insurance 264 Brief History of Health Insurance 266 Characteristics of Health Insurance 267 Private Health Insurance Coverage 271 The Evolution of Social Insurance 275 Major “Players” in the Social Insurance Arena 280 Statistics on Health Insurance Coverage and Costs 294 Those Not Covered—The Uninsured 296 Opportunities for Research on Emerging Issues 301 Conclusion 301

CHAPTER 10 Managing Costs and Revenues 314 Introduction 314 What Is Financial Management and Why Is It Important? 315 Tax Status of Health Care Organizations 316 Financial Governance and Responsibility Structure 318 Managing Reimbursements from Third-Party Payers 320 Coding in Health Care 328 Controlling Costs and Cost Accounting 330 Setting Charges 333 Managing Working Capital 334 Managing Accounts Receivable 336 Managing Materials and Inventory 337

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Managing Budgets 341 Opportunities for Research on Managing Costs and Revenues 345 Conclusion 345

CHAPTER 11 Managing Health Care Professionals 351 Introduction 351 Physicians 352 Registered Nurses 368 Licensed Practical Nurses/Licensed Vocational Nurses 376 Nursing Assistants and Orderlies 377 Home Health Aides 379 Midlevel Practitioners 380 Allied Health Professionals 383 Opportunities for Research on Health Care Professionals 385 Conclusion 386

CHAPTER 12 The Strategic Management of Human Resources 400 Introduction 400 Environmental Forces Affecting Human Resources Management 403 Understanding Employees as Drivers of Organizational Performance 405 Key Functions of Human Resources Management 406 Workforce Planning/Recruitment 408 Employee Retention 417 Research in Human Resources Management 437 Conclusion 440

CHAPTER 13 Teamwork 448 Introduction 448 What Is a Team? 449 The Challenge of Teamwork in Health Care Organizations 453 The Benefits of Effective Health Care Teams 456 The Costs of Teamwork 460 Electronic Tools and Remote and Virtual Teams 462 Face to Face Versus Virtual Teams 463 Real-World Problems and Teamwork 466 Who’s on the Team? 468 Emotions and Teamwork 471 Team Communication 473

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Methods of Managing Teams of Health Care Professionals 476 Opportunities for Research on Emerging Issues 478 Conclusion 479

CHAPTER 14 Addressing Health Disparities: Cultural Proficiency 488 Introduction 488 Changing U.S. Demographics and Patient Populations 493 Addressing Health Disparities by Fostering Cultural Competence in Health Care Organizations 495

Best Practices 498 Addressing Health Disparities by Enhancing Public Policy 506 Opportunities for Research on Health Disparities and Cultural Proficiency 507 Conclusion 508

CHAPTER 15 Ethics and Law 515 Introduction 515 Legal Concepts 517 Tort Law 521 Malpractice 522 Contract Law 523 Ethical Concepts 525 Patient and Provider Rights and Responsibilities 527 Legal/Ethical Concerns in Managed Care 530 Biomedical Concerns 531 Beginning- and End-of-Life Care 531 Opportunities for Research in Health Care Ethics and Law 533 Conclusion 533

CHAPTER 16 Fraud and Abuse 538 Introduction 538 What Is Fraud and Abuse? 539 History 540 The Social Security Act and the Criminal-Disclosure Provision 542 The Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act 543 Antitrust Issues 545 Physician Self-Referral/Anti-Kickback/Safe Harbor Laws 546 Management Responsibility for Compliance and Internal Controls 550 Corporate Compliance Programs 551

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Opportunities for Research in Fraud and Abuse 552 Conclusion 554

CHAPTER 17 Special Topics and Emerging Issues in Health Care Management 559

Introduction 559 Re-Emerging Outbreaks, Vaccine Preventable Diseases, and Deaths 560 Bioterrorism in Health Care Settings 565 Human Trafficking 567 Violence in Health Care Settings 572 Medical Tourism 577 Consumer-Directed Health Care 584 Opportunities for Research on Emerging Issues 591

CHAPTER 18 Health Care Management Case Studies and Guidelines 608

Introduction 608 Case Study Analysis 609 Case Study Write-Up 611 Team Structure and Process for Completion 613

CASE STUDIES* 617 Metro Renal—Case for Chapters 12 and 2 617 United Physician Group—Case for Chapters 5, 9, 11, and 15 618 Piecework—Case for Chapters 9 and 10 621 Building a Better MIS-Trap—Case for Chapter 8 623 Death by Measles—Case for Chapters 17, 11, and 15 624 Full Moon or Bad Planning?—Case for Chapters 17, 11, and 15 625 How Do We Handle a Girl Like Maria?—Case for Chapters 17 and 4 627 The Condescending Dental Hygienist—Case for Chapters 7, 12, 15, and 4 629 The “Easy” Software Upgrade at Delmar Ortho—Case for Chapters 8 and 13 630 The Brawler—Case for Chapters 11, 12, and 17 632 I Love You…Forever—Case for Chapters 17, 12, and 11 633 Managing Health Care Professionals—Mini-Case Studies for Chapter 11 634 Problems with the Pre-Admission Call Center—Case for Chapters 13 and 10 636 Such a Nice Young Man—Case for Chapters 17, 11, and 12 638 Sundowner or Victim?—Case for Chapters 15 and 17 639 Last Chance Hospital—Case for Chapters 5 and 6 640

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The Magic Is Gone—Case for Chapters 3, 12, and 13 642 Set Up for Failure?—Case for Chapter 3 644 Sustaining an Academic Food Science and Nutrition Center Through Management Improvement—Case for Chapters 2 and 12 646

Giving Feedback—Empathy or Attributions?—Case for Chapter 4 661 Socio-Emotional Intelligence Exercise: Understanding and Anticipating Major Change—Case for Chapter 4 663

Madison Community Hospital Addresses Infection Prevention—Case for Chapters 7 and 13 665

Trouble with the Pharmacy—Case for Chapter 7 668 Emotional Intelligence in Labor and Delivery—Case for Chapters 2, 12, and 13 673

Communication of Patient Information During Transitions in Care—Case for Chapters 7 and 12 675

Multidrug-Resistant Organism (MDRO) in a Transitional Care Unit—Case for Chapters 7 and 12 677

Are We Culturally Aware or Not?—Case for Chapters 14 and 5 679 Patients “Like” Social Media—Case for Chapters 6 and 5 680 Where Do You Live? Health Disparities Across the United States—Case for Chapter 14 681

My Parents Are Turning 65 and Need Help Signing Up for Medicare—Case for Chapter 9 683

Newby Health Systems Needs Health Insurance—Case for Chapter 9 685 To Partner or Not to Partner with a Retail Company—Case for Chapters 17, 5, and 6 687

Wellness Tourism: An Option for Your Organization?—Case for Chapters 17 and 5 689

Conflict in the Capital Budgeting Process at University Medical Center: Let’s All Just Get Along—Case for Chapter 10 691

The New Toy at City Medical Center—Case for Chapters 11 and 13 696 Recruitment Challenge for the Middle Manager—Case for Chapters 2 and 12 698 I Want to Be a Medical Coder—Case for Chapter 10 699 Managing Costs and Revenues at Feel Better Pharmacy—Case for Chapter 10 701 Who You Gonna Call?—Case for Chapter 16 704 You Will Do What You Are Told—Case for Chapter 15 705

GLOSSARY 708 INDEX 759

 

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