After habituating his animals to a visual stimulus

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)1. Habituation can be measured by:(a) observing whole-body startle reactions to loud tones(b) measuring the amount of blood flowing into one’s brain(c) measuring changes in the electrical conductivity of the skin(d) all of the above2.After habituating his animals to a visual stimulus, Dr. Stillman presents a novel tone to his subjects. Following the presentation of the tone, the animals are again shown the initial visual stimulus, but they no longer habituate to this event. What has occurred?(a) generalization(b) sensory adaptation(c) savings(d) dishabituation3. Neurons directly involved in the reflex arc have been labeled:(a) Type S(b) Type R(c) Type H(d) Type A4. Neurons that playa major role in the general level of arousal of the nervous system have been labeled:(a) Type S(b) Type R(c) Type H(d) Type A5. Why is a CR sometimes called an anticipatory response?(a) because a subject anticipates that making a CR will lead to some type of reward(b) because a subject makes a CR during the presentation of the US(c) because a subject makes a CR during the presentation of the CS(d) none of the above6.Which of the following methods of classical conditioning is focused on the survival value of conditioned associations?(a) eyeblink conditioning(b) SCR measurement(c) conditioned taste aversion(d) all of the above7. One possible drawback to evaluative conditioning is:(a) the reflexes studied are difficult to observe(b) the SCRs that are to be evaluated can be painful to subjects(c) the traditional CRs used with the procedure are too intense(d) none of the above8. Unconditioned Stimuli:(a) have no biological significance to an organism(b) are neutral stimuli(c) cannot have their significance acquired(d) none of the above9. Unconditioned Stimuli:(a) can have a sensory element to them(b) are devoid of emotional significance(c) do not typically elicit specific reactions(d) are unidimensional10.In a schedule, reinforcement occurs after a fixed number of responses.(a) continuous reinforcement(b) fixed ratio(c) variable ratio(d) fixed interval11.The capacity to inhibit immediate gratification in preference for a larger reward in the long run is central to:(a) secondary reinforcement(b) self-control(c) continuous reinforcement(d) token reinforcement12.A teacher giving a student a coupon they can exchange for a pencil, candy, or other reward is an example of this type of reinforcement.(a) secondary and primary reinforcement(b) self-control and token reinforcement(c) primary and token reinforcement(d) secondary and token reinforcement13. After getting a good grade on an exam, Julie’s mom gives Julie a big hug. The behavior of Julie’s mom in this situation could best be described as:(a) secondary reinforcement(b) social reinforcement(c) primary reinforcement(d) token reinforcement14.Sales associates’ attempts to help customers are sometimes rewarded with sales. Though which customer will buy may be unpredictable, more attempts should produce more sales. Such a schedule would illustrate _ reinforcement:(a) variable interval(b) variable ratio(c) fixed ratio(d) fixed interval15. Self-Injurious Behavior tends to be treated with:(a) reinforcement(b) punishment(c) aversion therapy(d) learned helplessness15.Skinner’s stance of the use of punishment in treating Self-Injurious Behavior (SIB) was that:(a) it should not be done because it is immoral(b) it should not be done because it only reinforces the punisher(c) it should be done if it is brief, harmless, and contingent on SIB(d) it should be done in an intense and painful way, in order to be effective in eliminating the SIB16.Which of the following can influence the degree to which items in a paired associate learning task become connected to one another?(a) prior knowledge(b) preexisting associationsIc) cognitive elaboration(d) all of the above17. Dr. Smith gives his experimental subjects the words BOY and SKY to learn in a paired associate task. After presenting subjects with these two words, subjects must generate a sentence that uses both of the words. Dr. Smith’s methodology is studying the effect of which of the following processes onpaired-associate learning?(a) free recall(b) cognitive elaboration(c) memorization(d) direction of associations18.The existence of long-term memory can be said to be supported by the occurrence of:(a) the recency effect(b) the primacy effect(c) anchoring(d) paired-associate learning19.The idea that words from the same semantic category can be recalled together even if they were not presented as part of the same list is the core idea underlying:(a) categorical clustering(b) subjective organization(c) associative clustering(d) matrix recall20.You are asked “Who was the first president of the United States?”To answer this question, you would most likely have to retrieve information from:(a) short-term memory(b) semantic memory(c) episodic memory(d) procedural memory21.You are asked “Where were you on 9/1 1 ?” To answer this question, you would most likely have to retrieve information from:(a) short-term memory(b) semantic memory(c) episodic memory(d) procedural memory22.. Which of the following is NOT known to produce memory loss?(a) electroconvulsive therapy(b) an unusual word appearing in the middle of a list of other words(c) the inducing of frustration in infants(d) none of the above23.The answer to which of the following questions would most likely involve activation of the mechanism(s) behind implicit memory?(a) “When did you graduate from high school?”(b) “When is your birthday?”(c) “How do you drive a stick shift vehicle?”(d) “Where were you on 9/11?”24.. A test that makes direct reference to a prior episode is most likely assessing:(a) incidental memory(b) implicit memory(c) working memory(d) explicit memory25.According to the word-length-effect, which of the following words has the best chance of being recalled correctly?(a) INCARCERATION(b) THOUGHTFULNESS(c) TIRE(d) MOUNTAINS26.The ability to recall, in order of presentation, which of the following number of items from a sequence of items, as indicative of a normal adult memory span:(a) 12(b) 4(c) 7(d) 227. The impairment in patient K.F. suggests that:(a) one needs STM to get information into LTM(b) STM is not necessary for the transfer of information into LTM(c) LTM has a limited capacity(d) STM actually has an unlimited capacity28.Which is NOT listed in your text (Box 8.2) as a condition which can cause memory loss?(a) Lyme disease(b) toxic poisoning from bad shellfish(c) alcohol poisoning(d) all of the above can cause memory loss29.According to McCarthy and Warrington (1990) which of the following is NOT a purpose of short term memory?(a) familiarity(b) problem solving(c) language comprehension(d) gateway to long-term memory30. High amounts of domain-specific knowledge can lead to the development of:(a) novice ability(b) expert ability(c) implicit memory(d) procedural memory31.The enhanced recall of distinctive items, and the impaired recall of information presented just prior to the distinctive stimuli, is referred to as:(a) the anterograde amnesic effect(b) the retrograde amnesic effect(c) the von Restorff effect(d) the recency effect32.The occurrence of distinctive stimuli impairing the recall of information presented after the distinctive items is referred to as:(a) the anterograde amnesic effect(b) the retrograde amnesic effect(c) the von Restorff effect(d) the recency effect33.At the beginning of yesterday’s sociology class, Dr. Smith showed highly suggestive pictures of men and women to illustrate the different forms that pornography can take. After this 5-minute slide show, Dr. Smith gave a 45-minute lecture of pornography and modern society. However, immediatelyafter the class ended, the students had no memory of the lecture– all they could recall were the sexually explicit photographs shown at the start of class. This impaired memory is illustrative of:(a) the anterograde amnesic effect(b) the retrograde amnesic effect(c) the von Restorff effect(d) the recency effect1.If a typical person is told to/Name a type of mammalr which of the following responses would be LEAST likely to be named?(a) dog(b) cat(c) whale(d) horse2.When retrieving the concept CAR, the concept SPEEDING TICKET is also retrieved. What is the name of the concept that most directly explains why these two ideas are recalled together?(a) priming(b) prosopagnosia(c) association/ spreading of activation(d) procedural memory3.Adam is trying to remember information for his psychology exam, but similar information that he studied in sociology is also being retrieved, interfering with his thinking process. This interference is most similar to:(a) priming(b) the fan effect(c) spreading of activation(d) procedural memory4.Ever since his car accident, Joe has difficulty remembering what his friends do for a living, although he can remember their names. This dysfunction is evidence for:(a) the modularity of episodic memory(b) the modularity of semantic memory(c) the formation of an implicit memory(d) the validity of spreading of activation5.An early, but ultimately incorrect, approach to understanding the biology of memory was:(a) the modularity approach(b) long-term potentiation(c) the formation of memory molecules(d) all of the above6.Remembering that improves over successive attempts at reproduction of the studied material is:(a) hypermnesia(b) encoding specificity(c) distinctiveness(d) none of the above7. Motor skill learning has qualities that make it illustrative of:(a) procedural learning(b) declarative memory(c) neither a or b(d) both a and b8.As Melanie sits in class paying attention to the new material being presented by her professor, this information, in its unconsolidated state, is likely being processed in which storage system?(a) sensory memory9.10.11.One study on remembering knowledge learned in school assessed learning 4 and 11 months after completion of a course. Grades fell about on the delayed tests.(a) 10(b) 20(c) 50(d) none of the above12, O. After practicing all summer long, Madison has finally learned how to make a baseball curve when she throws it. This ability can best be described as:(a) implicit learning(b) spatial learning(c) stimulus-response learning(d) motor skill learningLearni Theories11.Tommy has been running the 1-mile race for his track team for the past 5 years. His best times in each of the past 5 years, respectively, have been 5:30,5:02,4:40,4:30, and 4:25. Assuming his training proceeds according to plan, which of the following times should he be capable of runningthis year, according to the power law?(a) 3:59(b) 4:02(c) 4:23(d) 4:1012. The power law focuses on the relationship between motor skills learning and:(a) practice(b) feedback(c) motivation(d) strength13.Louie spent 4 hours yesterday afternoon learning how to ride a new ail-terrain vehicle, and had his competence tested over an obstacle course. He completed the course, but made 7 driving errors while on the course. After getting a good night’s rest (and without additional driving practice), Louiereturned to the course today and completed it with only 2 errors. This skill improvement is best referred to as:(a) implicit learning(b) practice independent learning(c) practice dependent learning(d) massed practice14.Janet is learning how to type, in the context of a single-session lab-based psychology experiment. To maximize typing performance in this context, the best type of feedback should be delivered how soon after each typing trial?(a) 1 minute(b) 1 hour(c) immediately(d) 10 minutes.15. The self-guidance hypothesis suggests that:(a) frequent feedback is the best way to improve motor skills(b) delayed feedback allows one to learn how to correct their own errors(c) delayed feedback inhibits motor skill learning(d) people can guide themselves when learning a motor skill-feedback is not necessary16. Which individual is likely to show the best classical conditioning ability?(a) a 27-yearold(b) a 7-year-old(c) a z-year-old(d) a 72-year-old17. Prenatal classical conditioning involves:(a) exposing a child to a CS and US immediately after birth(b) testing for a conditioned response at 1 month, and then 1 year, after birth(c) exposing a fetus to CS-US pairings(d) none of the above18. Identical twins tend to show similar memory ability on tasks involving:(a) short-term memory(b) digit span(c) sensory memory(d) associative memory19. Episodic memories can be assessed during infancy by using:(a) classical conditioning(b) habituation(c) dishabituation(d) none of the above20. Childhood amnesia may be the result of:(a) prenatal exposure to alcohol(b) enhanced hippocampal activity during the first year of life(c) well-formed meta memory skills(d) diminished memory capacity during infancy, compared to adulthood21.Very young children tend to rely on data to encode information, whereas older children and adults utilize data during encoding.(a) sensory; motor(b) sensory; verbal(c) verbal; motor(d) motor; sensory22.Cindy, a 6-year-old, is presented with several random strings of letters to commit to memory. Which of the following strings is she most likely to remember in the correct order?(a) RQY(b) BHFZP(c) MPLSTGX(d) WYZDHLPMT23. Developmental disabilities may be caused by:(a) birth defects(b) head injury(c) malnutrition(d) all of the above24.In a l-roorn schoolhouse with students of all ages, Mr. Smith notices that some of his students are taking notes about what is being discussed in class, whereas others are not. Which of the following students would be most likely to be one of the students taking notes?(a) Joe, a 5-year-old boy(b) Jen, a 6-year-old girl(c) Victor, a s-year-old boy(d) Rhonda, a 12-year-old girl25.Dr. Marie has a 23-year-old female patient that is having problems with her spatial memory. Giving this patient an estrogen supplement to boost her memory will likely have what effect on her memory dysfunction?(a) it will eliminate it(b) it will make it worse(c) it will have no long term impact(d) it will make her smarter


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