Understanding worker motivation


Topics to covered include:

· Understanding worker motivation

· Personnel management

· Hierarchy of needs

· Motivation and satisfaction

· New public service

This lesson looks at how workers work – how to motivate, manage, and generate productivity from workers. In the public sector, those workers serve the public and are the face of government to the everyday citizen. We will take another look at Human Relations. We will explore Mary Parker Follett’s descriptions of following orders, David Maslow’s “hierarchy of needs” and his theory of human motivation. Elton Mayo studied motivation of employees, and his results were used by Frederick Taylor to create the science of administration. In the 1950s, human relations became more focused on psychology and the empirical behavioral approach. Douglas MacGregor developed Theory X and Y that identified two different types of motivation. Frederick Herzberg followed this with a catalog of satisfaction and dissatisfaction factors that explained employee attitudes and workplace motivators. Finally, in the 1960s, William Mosher ushered in the need for a New Public Service when he questioned the entrenchment of professional bureaucracy in the face of maintaining our democracy. We will look in depth at these approaches throughout the lesson.

Understanding Worker Motivation

Mary Parker Follett

Why do workers follow orders? This seems like a simple question with an equally simple answer, but early studies of worker behavior found unexpected results. Human relations became the study of why simple answers about workers were not enough to understand their motivations. Mary Parker Follett was a social worker who used her understanding of people to begin to examine how managers could overcome resistance when they give orders. She believed that a win-win scenario was required. If managers had a better relationship with their workers, based on social understanding, then workers would be less resistant to doing work orders they didn’t want to do. In her essay “The Giving of Orders” (Follett, 1926), she recognized that workers had their own form of socialization – small groups in the workplace. Managers could not order by fiat and expect to overcome the social norms and behaviors that formed in those groups. Instead, Follett suggested that managers could create a willingness to support the company by creating scenarios for workers. In this way, they would see the value of what they were being asked to do and would be more willing to do it. Helping workers understand why the manager was giving the order, and how it fits into the larger company goals, especially as situations evolved and unfolded and orders change, made compliance more likely.

This social ties function of human relations became known as  interpersonal intelligence .

“The giving of orders is based on the law of the situation, rather than positional authority…Follett’s key idea in the giving of orders is that each individual takes a conscious, responsible, and experimental attitude toward the experience, noting the results and analyzing the successes and failures by uniting all in a study of the situation” (Feldheim, 2004, p.345).

Elton Mayo’s Hawthorne Studies

Elton Mayo

Follett’s views were complementary to the experimental studies done by Elton Mayo (1933) at the Hawthorne Plant in the 1920s. He thought that by adjusting lighting and assembly line placement (akin to Frederick Taylor’s time and motion studies), that workers would be more efficient and productive. What he found was that when groups of workers were given the option to have a say in their work conditions, for instance being able to set the time when they would get a break, workers became more productive. Productivity was not necessarily about whether it took one minute or two to do a routinized activity. It was about whether workers were willing to put in the effort. And they would be more likely to do so when they were working in groups when they could communicate their sentiments to management, and when they were treated as humans and not robots on the factory line. Mayo began what would become the Human Relations field of study – how employees can be managed, happy, and productive.

Mayo was later criticized for technical aspects of his studies when other scholars raised questions of the validity of the results and their generalizability (Parsons, 1974 as cited in Macefield, 2007). Mayo’s studies used a small group of test subjects and there was no scientific method of selection. Even more problematic was the bias factor. It seemed that those workers who were in the test group felt they were being given a higher standing and could work as they pleased, meaning the test results were biased because the workers knew they were test subjects. Additional scholars such as Charles Perrow (1972) stated that Mayo was substituting one “best way” for many other ways that factory work could be done. Like Herbert Simon, he contended there was no one best way, but many ways to satisfice. Because he was looking for the best answer, he overlooked the complexities of organizations. Because organizations are made up of different units with sometimes competing for goals or interests, workers may behave differently from one another. Without accounting for this in his tests, how did Mayo know which group he was really testing and what those results actually demonstrated? While human relations was deemed important, critics said it could not explain all aspects of industrial production or the workforce as a whole.

Peter Drucker’s Management by Objectives

Regardless of the criticism of Mayo’s studies, the human relations field continued and Follett’s notions about human needs created many advancements in industrial and organizational psychology, human motivation, and popular motivational theories expounded by modern authors such as Peter Drucker (1973). For example, Drucker (1954) created  management by objectives  that put into place performance management of employees. Instead of measuring and testing their performance, Drucker advocated working with employees to determine the objectives of their job and then measure their performance in achieving those objectives. This approach greatly altered the theory of business management and public administration as well. Learn more about what motivates public employees at  How to Get Public Workers to Care about Their Jobs.

Personnel Management

Charles Merriam, a member of the Brownlow Committee, and Louis Brownlow are seen leaving the White House in this 1938 photograph.

“Public personnel management has been studied extensively, from at least four perspectives. First, it is the functions needed to manage human resources in public agencies. Second, it is the process by which public jobs are allocated. Third, it is the interaction among fundamental societal values that often conflict over who gets public jobs, and how they are allocated. Finally, public personnel management is personnel systems – the laws, rules, organizations, and procedures used to express these abstract values in fulfilling personnel functions” (Klingner & Sabet, 2006).

Patronage  was a form of public employment that predated the original civil service commission and merit hiring. While eliminated at the federal level, patronage continued to be a popular way to reward political allies at the state and local government levels until they passed their own reforms and were subject to the Hatch Act of 1939. By its definition,  civil service  is recognized as the absence of politics in government hiring and instead basing hiring on merit.

Public administration and management scholars were appointed to the President’s Committee on Administrative Management In 1937 and were tasked with delivering recommendations to President Franklin Roosevelt. The Brownlow Commission, named after its chair, Louis Brownlow, recommended significant changes in the staffing and organization of the Executive branch – both in the White House and in Executive agencies. One of the recommendations was to reorganize the civil service – government workers who were not political appointees – and to make sure they had adequate salaries and were satisfied with their jobs. The Commission noted that people were leaving government employment because they were dissatisfied with the career (President’s Committee on Administrative Management, 1937). They recommended jobs have merit requirements, have designated pay grades, and have managerial oversight. Congress rejected the recommendations for political reasons, but eventually, many of the reforms did come to fruition.

The Civil Service Reform Act

Subsequent commissions and task forces have examined the U.S. Civil Service and personnel system many times. In 1978, The Civil Service Reform Act created a new Office of Personnel Management in the Executive Branch to oversee the personnel system. This was one of the recommendations of the Brownlow Commission and took 41 years to be instituted. Consider the amount of attention, time, and energy that has been devoted to the concept of government employment and civil service over time. Why do we have such an investment in people working at the government? We could outsource to private companies nearly all government work. What would be gained? What would we lose by doing that? Accountability to the public is generally the most frequent reason given to maintaining a civil service (Rosenbaum, n.d.). Accountability provides a check on corruption and provides a mechanism that the public’s interest is being acknowledged and addressed through government services and programs as the faithful execution of laws and the budget that is passed by Congress and signed by the President. Understanding what people want and believe they need is our next subject.

Hierarchy of Needs

Abraham Maslow (1943) created one of the most frequently cited works in human psychology – the Hierarchy of Needs. This pyramid has influenced generations of scholars, practitioners, and certainly public administrators in understanding human priorities, what services are essential, and even how cities and governments should function.

Physical Needs

Maslow looked at people and delineated what matters most to them are the basic needs that are physiological and safety-related – food, shelter, safety. Consider public services such as emergency management, first responders, police, fire, disaster relief, flood insurance. Government puts a priority on these services because they are considered essential. Healthcare also could be considered part of this level and it is a major topic of public policy, public benefits, and even privacy regulations. Food and product safety regulations, agricultural subsidies for food, military expenditures, and environmental protection for clean air and water also could be justified as addressing these basic human needs.

Psychological Needs

The middle levels of his hierarchy are psychological needs – or emotional needs – that includes esteem, belongingness, and love. It identifies personal accomplishment and having relationships with friends and family as the source of this need. Consider how public services address this. Social work, child services, and mental health all would fit into this category. Preserving the family unit, protecting child-parent relationships, and helping people to achieve psychological balance are fundamental in ensuring that people get to experience esteem and belonging. Education can be seen as a basic fulfillment of people’s productivity. Learning to read, count, and function in the society fit here as well. As a society we have (for various reasons) decided that illiteracy is unproductive and that advancement serves the individual and the society. This second need level on Maslow’s pyramid helps to understand why our system of free, public education is essential.


The top level of the hierarchy is self-fulfillment needs and is referred to as  self-actualization . Self-actualization is the ability to go beyond the basic needs and to take on challenges, advanced education, creative pursuits, and to pursue one’s full potential. It builds on the rung below: self-esteem and accomplishment. What programs and services does government pursue to address the needs of self-actualization? We could look at job training and employment support, higher education loans and grants, scientific research funding, space exploration and any number of other advanced technologies and well-being areas. Certainly, space exploration is not necessary for survival on earth on a day-to-day basis. Yet the public has great support for NASA and the space program. President Kennedy’s challenge to put a man on the moon by 1969 launched an entire generation to pursue technical-scientific knowledge and apply it. Without government support for NASA, the moon mission would not have happened. Space exploration ushered in the use of high-speed computing, microwave and satellite technology and communication, and many other advancements. We pursue these things because it resonates with our highest need.

Other Examples of High-Level Activities

While science certainly can be justified by the economic gains it produces in terms of products and technology, the government also supports the arts and creativity – for its own sake. Public art has become a standard practice in public projects, even in highway construction, because it is pleasing and serves our highest need for creativity. Learn more about public art here:  Public Art 101 .

Maslow recognized that these needs are ubiquitous. But he also used a pyramid as his depiction for a reason. Not everyone values the highest needs as broadly as they do the need for survival. Some people consider needs at the top as luxuries and challenge whether the government should be providing those things at all. It is a question public administrators must continually address as they justify their budget requests and programs and services.

Life is Not Static

Another important consideration to note about Maslow’s hierarchy is that it is not static. While the depiction of a rising pyramid makes it seem as though people flow through the hierarchy, people do not always follow a linear path. Nor do they move through the levels of needs at the same pace. This provides another explanation as to why we have public policy disagreements about the need for and value of certain programs and services. There are some people who do not achieve the highest level of need and are very satisfied at the lower levels and have no desire or recognition of needing anything more. Other people have a far more discerning expectation of what needs must be addressed. There is no correct answer to this conundrum. People as citizens and the “public” have different expectations about what government should deliver in terms of policy and services.

Public Management

Public management must take into account the various dimensions of human expectations when seeking to motivate government employees. Employees, as people, have similar assumptions about needs and expectations of priorities for themselves. While the pyramid represents the spectrum of needs, not all employees will be motivated by it in the same way. How can the public sector workforce be motivated?

Motivation and Satisfaction

Two-factor Theory

Herzberg (1968) took on the task of understanding what motivates employees in the private sector. This has been widely applied to the public sector as well. He formulated the  two-factor theory  as an approach to understand what motivates employees. This theory included motivators and hygiene factors. Motivators are considered those conditions that produce satisfaction – which could be job satisfaction, responsibility, achievement, and recognition. These are things that could be found in Maslow’s second level of psychological needs. Hygiene factors primarily produce dissatisfaction. These include salary, working conditions and safety, relationships on the job with co-workers and supervisors, and company policies. If people believe they are being treated unfairly, being taken advantage of, and not being heard, they will likely have increased dissatisfaction. These are closer to the lower rungs of Maslow’s pyramid of needs.

Separate, Not Equal

One of the key points of understanding the two-factor theory is that they are separate and not equal. Increasing motivation factors does not diminish the need for hygiene factors and vice versa. Providing employee recognition will not overcome dissatisfaction with the rate of pay for example. But providing recognition along with a reasonable salary may produce higher motivation and thus productivity. This is especially relevant when thinking about public employees. Public salaries are often lower than comparable work in the private sector – teachers, police, sanitation workers provide widely needed services and are not always as well paid as comparable work in the private sector. There are ways to motivate public workers, but the hygiene factors of dissatisfaction will continue to be present – especially considering those agencies and bureaus that are rule-bound, hierarchical, and inflexible. The reputation of poor-performing public employees may have more to do with hygiene factors than any personal qualities of the employee. Understanding the power of motivators may be essential for the human relations of public sector employees.

Theory X and Y

Douglas MacGregor (1957) also studied the types of motivation that can be identified in employees. He developed the management theory of X and Y (see Lesson 1). He postulated that managers who fit Theory X are more likely to be difficult and demanding, having expectations of workers that likely will be unmet. Workers will resist this management style. Managers that are Theory Y are more likely to be participatory in their management style. Workers will respond to this more freely and may be more productive because they have been included in the process of management. It is the difference between managing “things” and managing people with human responses. If we consider the evolution of management “license” through decentralization, we can begin to understand Theory X and Y in practice. By decentralizing authority, public administrators have built systems that reward professionalism, norms or standards of practice, and discretionary authority.


One of the motivators that are important and somewhat unique in the public sector is the desire to be of service to the public. For example, police departments use the motto – “to protect and serve.” Consider this a reflection of the concept of  servant-leadership . Robert Greenleaf (1977) formulated the idea of servant-leadership as a continuum of two opposite points – leadership and service. By finding a common ground, he felt that organizations (institutions) and managers could provide a benefit to the workplace as well as the community through whatever product they sold or service they provided. A servant-leader has the characteristics of being cooperative and uplifting. They engage in practices such as listening, persuasion, empathy, and stewardship. Using this concept of the motivation of employees and leadership style, we can begin to see how public administrators can provide an environment that meets Maslow’s higher order needs and can produce greater satisfaction at work as outlined by Herzberg. Certainly, servant-leadership fits within the realm of providing public service to fellow citizens and to provide for the greater good.

New Public Service: Morton Grodzins

Scholars have examined human relations in public administration from many angles in order to understand the value it brings to making the public sector function as intended while also serving the needs of the employees it is meant to manage.

Morton Grodzins (1951) brought to light the difficulty of making human relations a scientific theory. He was concerned that such types of applied research were “fact-happy” and that the applied researcher “fails to come to grips with the important scientific questions: What are the significant facts to observe? How can he reliably record what is significant as opposed to what is easy? How can he relate his observations to general propositions?” (Grodzins, 1951, p. 95).

Grodzins was concerned that the “human” part of human relations was feel-good and was not necessarily responsible for making productivity or results better in government organizations. While it may not be able to meet the scientific standard, Grodzins recognized that human managers were nearly impossible to study because their judgments and approaches were often value-laden – because they are human beings. He stated,

“It is not only true that policy must be made with more than facts. It is also true that when scientists recommend policy they are not acting in their capacity as scientists” (Grodzins, 1951, p. 98).

Further, he states,

“The science of human relations constitutes an effective tool for the manipulation of men” (Grodzins, 1951, p. 99).

By this, he meant that social science findings could be used as recommendations that move policy in opposite directions because findings could have many meanings. For Grodzins, this meant that human relations must be carefully used and understood.

“Exact knowledge does not lead in a straight line to wise policy. The policy must emerge from reasoning that is something more profound than knowledge of facts and something more comprehensive than scientific method” (Grodzins, 1951, p. 101).

New Public Service: Frederick Mosher

While Grodzins focused on human relations, Frederick Mosher, a leading pracademic (practicing academic), focused on the impact of the bureaucracy on our democracy. He wrote a seminal work, Democracy and the Public Service in 1968. In reviewing this work, Plant (2007, p. 182-183) notes the stages of administration we have already covered – from Woodrow Wilson to Herbert Simon. Here he positions Mosher’s call for new public service when he writes,

“Mosher’s breakdown of American administrative history into the familiar typology of ‘Government by Gentlemen,’ ‘Government by the Common Man,’ ‘Government by the Good,’ ‘Government by the Efficient,’ and ‘Government by Administrators’ (with the implicit notion that the current phase is ‘Government by Professionals’) is well known…. Mosher’s definition of professions as ‘social mechanisms whereby knowledge, including particularly new knowledge, is translated into action and service.’ ” (Plant, 2007, p. 102).

It is important to understand that public administrators as professionals are very different than a bureaucratic workforce, hired to take on specific tasks as Weber may have envisioned. Professional administrators are motivated not only by expectations as Herzberg pointed out in his two-factor theory, but also as professionals – with high levels of education, professional norms, and an understanding that their presence inside government bureaucracy has an impact on policymaking and not just the implementation of policy. The professional administrator has a large ripple effect on government and Mosher recognized this may require some normative adjustment about what public administrators should be as professionals.

Mosher’s New Public Service


1. Government decisions and behavior are tremendously influential in our society;

2. These decisions and behaviors are heavily influenced by non-elected administrative officials;

3. The kinds of decisions and behaviors taken depend upon the officials’ capabilities, orientations, and values;

4. These attributes depend upon their backgrounds, training and education, and their current associations (Mosher, 1968, p. 3).


· Mosher was concerned that the professionalization and norms of the bureaucracy would clash with the interests of the public as expressed through the democratic process. Mosher wrote,

· “Where political appointees invade too far the province of the respective career services, there is a threat to substantive effectiveness, an invitation to inefficiency and even scandal. Where the political appointees are driven out, there is a threat to the general interest in favor of special interests, to “the public” in favor of a self-directed or entrenched bureaucracy” (Mosher, 1968, p. 185).

Institutional Memory

The entrenched bureaucracy is the double-edged sword of creating a bureaucratic structure in the first place. The self-interest of public workers will emerge which may be self-serving and not public-serving. However, the expertise of the public bureaucrat is considered valuable and keeps the institution working at a high level of efficiency.  Institutional memory  is an important component of public service – routinization, understanding of rules and regulations, remembering why decisions were made and the rationale for which decisions were accepted and which were discarded. This is an important component of managing employees in a large bureaucracy so that as turnover occurs, the services and programs continue smoothly for citizens who are being served. Mosher saw the conundrum of entrenchment versus institutional performance and called for a new form of public service that serves democracy while producing public services.

Mosher’s concern about how public servants were representing democracy in an evolving age of professionalism led to his call for new public service. Plant (2008, p. 182) summarizes Mosher’s intention:

“Mosher’s intention [was] to explore a new role for public administration education, working not simply as a discipline or sub-discipline with its own set of courses and degree programs but rather as a partner with professional schools of law, medicine, education, and business. The aim would be to produce a new type of public service professional, grounded in the professional fields that were forming the new public service but also sensitive to and knowledgeable about the workings of government.”

It was Mosher’s recognition of the professionalism of new public administrators that ushered in a new examination of public bureaucrats in contrast to political appointees. Later authors such as the Denhart’s and Osborne and Gaebler identified the new directions that public service would take and how this concept of new public service would function.


Human Relations in public administration is greatly influenced by management theorists who study private companies. Despite this, an identifiable element of public service management has developed. Starting with Follett, public service included a dimension of the human emotion and resilience of workers that were serving their fellow citizens. As a social worker, she saw this practical need and incorporated it into her expectation of management. Psychologists sought to understand human needs and emotions. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is a foundational piece for understanding why we select public programs and services in the first place, in addition to providing an understanding of worker motivations. Others followed with an examination of how workers respond to managers that adopt Theory X or Theory Y and the two-factor theory of motivation and dissatisfaction. Once we understand the various motivations and responses that workers may have, we can examine the uniqueness of the public sector. Greenleaf’s notion of servant-leadership provides an opportunity to recognize the value of and impact of “service” in public service. Mosher’s call for a New Public Service broke down the two elements he saw most important in public administration management – democracy and bureaucracy. If we are a responsive, democratic nation, then how do we draw a reasonable boundary for the bureaucracy? The bureaucracy will generate its own self-interest and professional identity. It may lose sight of what the public wants and needs as well as expects from its government. This potential clash requires us to re-examine what constitutes public service and how to generate a balance of professional standards and public expectations for their own interests. Human relations is a staple in all areas of management – public and private. It is the special contours of the public sector that require us to think more closely about accountability to the public, the service of public service, and what professional norms and standards can be accommodated in a democracy.


Drucker, P. (1973). Management: Tasks, responsibilities, practices. New York: Harper & Row.

Feldheim, M. (2004). Mary Parker Follett Lost and found – Again, and again, and again. International Journal of Organizational Theory and Behavior 6(4), 341-362.

Greenway, R. (1977). Servant leadership. New York: Paulist Press.

Grodzins, M. (1951). Public administration and the science of human relations. Public Administration Review 11(2), 88-102.

Herzberg, F. (1968). One more time: How do you motivate employees? Harvard Business Review 81(1), 87-96.

Klingner, D. & Sabet, M. (2006). Contemporary public human resource management: Patronage, civil service, privatization, and service contracting. In Krishna Tummala (Ed.), Encyclopedia of life support systems. New York: UNESCO.  https://www.eolss.net/Sample-Chapters/C14/E1-34-05-01.pdf

Macefield, R. (2007). Usability studies and the Hawthorne effect. Journal of Usability Studies 2(3), 145-154.

Mayo, E. (1933). The human problems of an industrial civilization. New York: Macmillan.

Mosher, F. C. (1968). Democracy and the public service. New York: Oxford University Press.

Parsons, H. M. (1974). What happened at Hawthorne? Science 183(4128), 922-32.

Perrow. C. (1972). Complex organizations: A critical essay. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman & Co.

Perry, J. (2007). Democracy and the new public service. The American Review of Public Administration 37(3), 3-16.

Plant, J. (2008). A classic work revisited: Democracy and the public service. A review of Democracy and the Public Service by Frederick Mosher. Public Administration Review 68(1), 181-184.

President’s Committee on Administrative Management. (1937). Administrative Management in the United States. Washington: Government Printing Office.

Rosenbaum, A. (n.d.). Good governance, accountability, and the public servant. Institute for Public Management and Community Service, Miami: Florida International University. Retrieved from http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/nispacee/unpan005698.pdf


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Compared to Sec61, the insertion step of the GET (guided entry of tail anchored proteins) pathway deals with just a…

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. Uber has expanded its operations to 425 cities in 72 countries around the world and is valued at around $70 billion,

2-1 Introduction

Uber Technologies Inc. (Uber) is a tech startup that provides ride-sharing services by

facilitating a connection between independent contractors (drivers) and riders with the use

of an app. Uber has expanded its operations to 425 cities in 72 countries around the world

and is valued at around $70 billion, making it the world’s most valuable startup.

Approximately 30 million users use Uber’s services monthly. Uber has become a key player

in the sharing economy, a new economic model in which independent contractors rent out

their underutilized resources such as vehicles or lodging to other consumers. The sharing

economy is quickly becoming an alternative to owning resources outright. Because its

services cost less than taking a traditional taxi, Uber and similar ride-sharing services have

upended the taxi industry. The company has experienced resounding success and is

looking toward expansion both internationally and within the United States.

However, Uber’s rapid success is creating challenges in the form of legal and regulatory,

social, and technical obstacles. The taxi industry, for instance, is arguing that Uber has an

unfair advantage because it does not face the same licensing requirements as they do.

Others accuse Uber of not vetting their drivers, creating potentially unsafe situations. Some

major cities are banning ride-sharing services like Uber because of these various concerns.

Additionally, Uber has faced various lawsuits, including a lawsuit filed by its independent

contractors. Its presence in the market has influenced lawmakers to draft new regulations to

govern this “app-driven” ride-sharing system. Legislation can often hinder a company’s

expansion opportunities because of the resources it must expend to comply with regulatory

requirements. Uber has been highly praised for giving independent contractors an opportunity to earn money as long as they have a car, while also offering convenient ways for consumers to get around at lower costs. Although its “Surge Pricing” technique has been criticized for charging higher fares during popular times, it is also becoming a model for other companies such as Zappos in how it compensates its call center employees. The biggest issues Uber faces include legal action because drivers are not licensed, rider and driver safety,protection and security of customer and driver information, and a lack of adequate insurance coverage. To be successful, Uber must address these issues in its marketing strategy so it can reduce resistance as it expands into other cities.

2-2 Background

In 2009 Travis Kalanick and Garrett Camp developed a smartphone application to connect

drivers-for-hire with people needing rides to a destination in their city. Earlier in the year the

founders had attended the inaugural address in Washington, D.C. and could not hail a taxi.

They recognized the need for a convenient, low-cost transportation service. This innovative

service was originally founded as UberCab Inc., a privately held company. It was renamed

Uber Technologies, Inc. in 2010. Co-founders Kalanick and Camp designed the mobile app

for iPhone and Android smartphones, enabling customers to get an estimated time of arrival

from the driver on their smartphone with the use of an integrated GPS system.

Consumers liked the Uber app because of its convenience and ease-of-use. After the

mobile app is downloaded to their smartphones, passengers can pay for the rides-for-hire

service through a third party, known as a Transportation Network Company (TNC), using the

UberX platform that scans or takes a picture of their credit card with the smartphone’s

camera. Uber does not maintain automobile inventory for drivers, such as a fleet of taxicabs

or limousines. Instead, each driver-for-hire supplies his or her own personal automobile,

gas, insurance, and maintenance of his or her own car. Drivers can drive their own cars

where they want when they want, providing them with freedom to run their own small

businesses. A surge pricing model is used during times of peak demand. While Uber initially

charged about a 20 percent commission, it later introduced a new tiered structure in some

cities that charged different commission rates depending upon the number of hours worked.

Due to the increased demand in the rides-for-hire industry, Uber makes about $4 billion in

revenue. The term uber has become so popular that people have started using it as a verb,

much like google. Founder and former CEO Travis Kalanick sees Uber’s services as a type

of disruptive technology, believing that the types of ride-sharing services Uber offers will one

day make it a viable alternative to owning a car. Younger generations appear more open to

using services as needed rather than owning them outright. In emerging economies such as

India, many people do not own cars, which gives Uber a major advantage. As ride sharing

continues to increase, Uber could find itself competing against car ownership.

Uber maintains a presence in major U.S. cities including Los Angeles, San Francisco, New

York City, Chicago, Washington D.C., and Boston. These cities have the most driver–

partners, although many other cities also have driver–partners. Uber technology-based

products are available under these various brands: Uber, UberX, UberXL, UberSelect,

UberBlack, UberSUV, UberLUX, UberPool, and the logistics-request brand UberEats. Uber

has also upgraded its current navigation service (Google and Apple) with deCarta Mapping

Company. This new mapping system continues to improve Uber’s navigation and location


2-3 Uber’s Marketing Strategy

Like all companies, Uber must understand its target market and maintain a strong marketing

mix to be successful. Due to its technology, Uber does not have as many constraints as taxi

cabs, although it has encountered regulatory obstacles and some public resistance. The

Uber business model takes advantage of the smartphone technology of consumers and

links them with independent drivers as their cabs. This provides a more potentially efficient

and less-expensive way to purchase transportation.

2-3a Products

Uber’s products are all digital. Consumers download Uber’s app onto their smartphones.

When they want to request a ride, they can use the app to contact a driver in the near

vicinity. The Uber app allows consumers to track the location of the car and alerts them to

when the car arrives.

Uber offers a few different services to customers based upon their preferences. Its most

used service is UberX, the low-budget option. Drivers use their own vehicles to transport

passengers. UberSelect is a more luxurious option than UberX but with lower prices than

the premium options. UberBlack is for consumers who desire to have their own private

driver in a high-end sedan. UberSUV connects users with SUVs, while UberLux is the most

expensive service with luxury vehicles. UberXL is similar to UberSUV but costs 50 percent

less. Another low-cost option includes UberPool, which allows passengers to share rides

and split the costs.

Uber is also attempting to expand into other services. Its UberEats is a meal delivery app

that partners with local restaurants to offer meals to consumers within 10 minutes. Uber is

also looking to break into the emerging self-driving car industry (known as autonomous

cars), competing against the likes of Google and Tesla. Uber partnered with Carnegie

Mellon University to begin testing autonomous cars in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.Since it is

still in the testing stage, autonomous cars have two Uber employees in the front seat ready

to take the wheel if needed. The company hopes to take what it learns to improve how

autonomous cars run in different terrains. These new services are allowing Uber to branch

out and expand into different businesses.

2-3b Distribution

Uber operates in more than 425 cities in 72 countries. One major reason Uber is so popular

is because its app allows users to contact any drivers in the near vicinity. Drivers use the

Uber app to provide them with directions. Los Angeles, San Francisco, New York, Chicago,

Washington D.C., and Boston have the most drivers in the United States. Most Uber drivers

offer their ride-sharing services on a part-time basis.

To be successful, Uber engages in strategic partnerships with other companies. In the

United States it partnered with American Express. Card members enrolled in American

Express’s Membership Rewards program can earn points with Uber for rides. Strategic

partnerships with local firms are especially important as Uber expands internationally

because it allows the company to utilize the resources and knowledge of domestic firms

familiar with the country’s culture. Uber has partnered with Times Internet in India, Baidu in

China, and AmericaMovil in Latin America.

2-3c Pricing

Uber uses its app to determine pricing. Once the passenger completes his or her ride with

an Uber partner–driver, the person’s credit card is charged automatically. Fees charged for

speeds over 11 miles per hour are charged by the distance traveled. Uber operates on a

cost leadership basis, claiming that it offers lower rates than taxis. However, the app

OpenStreetCab suggests that Uber might be more cost-efficient only when the fare is more

than $35.

Uber uses an algorithm to estimate fees charged when demand is high. Called surge

pricing, Uber has even applied for a patent for this type of system. This “peak pricing”

strategy is not too different than when utilities or flights charge higher prices when demand

is high. Passengers are alerted during times when the price is higher. However, the extent of

the pricing increase has been questioned as some consumers believe Uber uses this high

demand to “price gouge” passengers.

In some situations, Uber’s surge pricing has led to considerable criticism. During one New

Year’s Eve, pricing surged up to seven times the normal price. During a hostage crisis in

Sydney, Australia, Uber charged as much as four times the normal price as an influx of

people struggled to evacuate. Uber responded by claiming its price hikes encouraged more

drivers to pick up passengers in the area, but consumers were outraged. Within an hour

Uber agreed to refund users in the Sydney area who paid the higher prices. In extreme

shortages, prices are sometimes hiked to as high as 6–8 percent. On the one hand, it can

be argued that surge pricing increases the number of drivers during times of high demand. It

is estimated that the number of drivers increases by 70–80 percent due to surge pricing. On

the other hand, consumers believe this is a form of price gouging and that Uber capitalizes

on emergency situations such as the Sydney hostage crisis. Uber has to reconcile these

different situations to create a pricing strategy considered fair by its users.

2-3d Promotion

Uber has engaged in a number of promotional activities to make its brand known. Often it

adopts buzz marketing strategies to draw attention to its services. For instance, to celebrate

National Ice Cream Month one year Uber launched on-demand ice cream trucks in seven

major cities. In one promotion Uber partnered with General Electric to offer free DeLorean

rides to San Francisco users reminiscent of the movie Back to the Future. Uber also uses

promotion to portray its benefits compared to its rivals. For instance, Uber assumed a

combative advertising approach to its major rival Lyft through a Facebook ad campaign.

Uber advertising often stresses the convenience and low cost of its ride-sharing services.

However, like all companies Uber must take care to ensure that its advertising could not be

construed as misleading. A lawsuit was filed in the U.S. District Court in San Francisco

stating that Uber violated the 1946 Lanham Act that prohibits false advertising. Taxi

companies claimed, for instance, that Uber’s drivers do not have to undergo fingerprinting in

California as part of background checks, and yet it used advertising such as “the safest ride

on the road” and sets “the strictest safety standards possible,” as well as Uber’s $1 “Safe

Rides Fee.” According to the taxi drivers, these deceptive advertising practices take

customers away from their services and are therefore leading to economic harm.

2-4 Uber Faces Challenges

Uber faces a number of challenges including internal struggles, legal and regulatory

challenges, and global issues. In the United States, major cities are considering regulating

Uber. However, it faces even more challenges as it expands internationally as some

countries are opting to ban Uber services. Uber will have to adapt its marketing strategy to

address both domestic challenges within the United States and the various laws enforced in

different countries.

2-4a Internal Challenges—Driver Relations

Uber operates in an industry where trust between strangers is vital. This trust ensures a

safe and comfortable ride for both passenger and driver. Uber has developed a rating

system to help assure this trust and reliability between passengers and drivers, called a

ride-share ratings system. Ride-share rating systems pose a unique challenge for Uber

because of the way they are set up and the level of rider objectivity. Uber’s insistent policy of

maintaining a five-star fleet can put drivers at a disadvantage. Uber rivals have similar

policies; for instance, Lyft tells customers that anything less than 5 stars indicate

unhappiness with the ride.

Low driver scores can mean drivers are forced to take remedial classes where they learn

about safe driving techniques and driver etiquette. Those who fail to increase their scores

risk suspension or permanent deactivation. Because consumers have different views of

what constitutes quality, it can be argued that Uber drivers are placed at the mercy of the

consumer’s mood.

Drivers have also expressed unhappiness with Uber’s pay. Uber will often lower fare rates in

order to gain a competitive advantage in different markets, which cuts into driver earnings.

Additionally, drivers are driving their own cars and spending their personal funds on upkeep

and insurance. In 2014 drivers working with Teamsters Local 986 launched the California

App-based Drivers Association (CADA), an Uber drivers’ Union. More cities have started

their own unions.

Uber has begun to guarantee hourly earnings of $10–$26 per hour for its drivers, but to

qualify drivers have to comply with Uber’s rules including accepting 90 percent of ride

requests, doing one ride per hour, and being online 50 out of 60 minutes. Critics say these

restrictions effectively keep drivers from working for other ride-sharing services. Uber drivers

are independent contractors and not employees of the company, so they have the option to

work for competitors. However, these new criteria may be a way to keep drivers working for

Uber and no one else.

This independent contractor status has also created controversy for drivers. Drivers claim

that Uber’s requirements make them more employees than independent contractors. For

instance, Uber has certain rules about types of car and soliciting business. Some also claim

that after Uber takes its commission, they end up earning less than minimum wage.

Disgruntled drivers have staged protests and filed lawsuits against the firm.

In 2015 Uber faced a setback when a California labor commissioner ruled that an Uber

driver qualified as an employee. The commissioner argued that because Uber was “involved

in every aspect of the operation,” including setting fares and nonnegotiable fees, it had enough control over the driver for her to qualify as an employee. Uber was ordered to pay

the driver $4,100 to cover mileage and tolls. Uber continues to maintain that its drivers are

independent contractors and is still fighting against other lawsuits in California. While this

does not necessarily mean all Uber drivers will qualify as employees under the court

system, it does set a precedent for drivers in other states to file lawsuits. If Uber encounters

more issues in this area, it might have to alter its relationship with drivers and give up some

control so its drivers will fall beneath the employee threshold.

2-4b Corporate Culture

More recently, Uber has come under criticism for an aggressive—and some say toxic—

corporate culture. Some prominent executives at Uber have left the firm, claiming that the

corporate culture conflicted with their values. The problems became so serious that one of

Uber’s biggest shareholders and other investors pressured Travis Kalanick to resign as

CEO, although he will remain on the board. Kalanick was well known for his aggressive

strategies, and according to critics, this behavior began trickling down to employees.

Investors began to question how Kalanick’s temperament might impact his leadership

capabilities after some high-profile negative events. For instance, an Uber driver driving

Travis Kalanick had a heated exchange with Kalanick that was recorded and released to the

public. Kalanick was highly criticized for his participation on President Donald Trump’s

president advisory panel, and accusations that Uber had weakened a taxi union strike

protest led to 200,000 customers deleting their accounts. Autonomous car company

Waymo, owned by Alphabet Inc., has sued Uber, claiming that one of its employees stole

trade secrets.

Like many Silicon Valley startups, Uber has also been criticized for its lack of diversity. One

woman who worked as an engineer for the firm maintains her sexual harassment claims

were dismissed after complaining of unwanted sexual advances by her superior. She wrote

a blog detailing her ordeal. In response, Uber launched an investigation into the claims.

However, it initially resisted calls from the media and Civil Rights leader Reverend Jesse

Jackson to disclose the demographics of its workforce.

Uber’s resistance to releasing its diversity statistics coupled with accusations of sexual

harassment led to a backlash among certain investors. Two prominent investors wrote a

letter to Travis Kalanick claiming that Uber had a toxic culture that needed to change. Uber

agreed to release its first diversity report, have its employees undergo diversity training, and

hire a new chief operating officer. The company hired Bernard Coleman, who was chief

diversity officer for Hillary Clinton’s presidential campaign, as its chief diversity officer in

order to help increase the diversity of its workforce. It also fired 20 employees it believed

were involved in harassment, discrimination, or other improper behaviors.

Travis Kalanick responded to the negative press by apologizing for his behavior and

admitted he needs leadership help. When morale dropped after the engineer’s sexual

harassment allegations, he met with a group of female employees to discuss their concerns.

Despite these positive actions, it was not enough to quell shareholder unease. Travis

Kalanick agreed to resign as CEO due to the pressure from investors. The challenge Uber

faces is that it has become so associated with its founder that it may be difficult to change

leadership while maintaining such rapid expansion and success.

2-4c Legal Challenges

Regulation is a constant challenge for Uber. As it becomes more popular, Uber will become

subject to more legal and regulatory requirements common to other big businesses. For

instance, the Americans with Disabilities Act is becoming a challenge for Uber. Since the

Uber service is usually operated within a driver’s personal vehicle, many of the vehicles are

not wheelchair friendly.

Taxi lobbies are also pressuring local governments to block Uber in many cities. They claim

that Uber hurts their businesses and has an unfair advantage as Uber drivers are not

subject to the same restrictions as licensed taxi drivers. Cities have taken action against

Uber by blocking ordinances that provide a path to legalization for mobile ride-booking apps

and issuing cease-and-desist orders. With Uber looking into expanding into self-driving

vehicles—a new industry that will prompt a number of safety laws—its encounters with

regulators are not likely to decrease any time soon.

Uber has often taken an aggressive stance against regulations that would place limitations

on its services. For instance, in 2012 when Washington D.C. attempted to force Uber to

accept a price floor to operate in the city, Travis Kalanick accused regulators of price fixing

and encouraged Uber users to contact their representatives. The result was a flood of angry

responses. Kalanick’s approach to negotiating with regulators could be described as

antagonistic as he often ignored his lobbyists’ advice to seek compromise. Uber has also

been accused of blatantly disregarding laws in other countries that forbid ride-sharing

services, a criticism that will be discussed more in-depth in a later section.

In addition to having an unfair competitive advantage, another accusation levied against

Uber is that it does not adhere to proper safety standards. Allegedly, Uber drivers were

involved in three rapes in Delhi, India; Chicago; and Boston. These rapes harmed Uber’s

reputation and cast its safety into question. A lawsuit was filed against Uber in San

Francisco for the wrongful death of a 6-year-old girl. The lawsuit alleged that a driver was

distracted using the UberX app when he struck and killed the girl. Uber responded by

claiming that the driver was not an agent for Uber and was not en route or transporting a

passenger at the time of the accident. Once again, this brings up the issue of how much

Uber should be responsible for its drivers as independent contractors.

To reestablish its reputation for safety, Uber has added a “safe ride checklist” to its app,

which is a pre-pickup notification that encourages riders to confirm the license plate number

and verify their driver’s name and appearance before entering a vehicle. They have also

added a team of safety and fraud experts to authenticate drivers and a dedicated incident response team to address rider issues in India. Insurance is another criticism. Although Uber’s website claims that it offers $1 million in liability insurance plans for its drivers, some states are issuing warnings stating that rideshare insurance may not cover them should there be an accident. This is because personal cars are being used for commercial purposes. Many states in the United States are reconsidering insurance requirements in light of this issue, and insurance firms such as Geico and MetLife have begun offering insurance packages for ride-sharing services.

2-4d Global Expansion

Uber has adopted the motto “Available locally, expanding globally” to describe the

opportunities it sees in global expansion. International expansion is a major part of Uber’s

marketing strategy, and it has thus far established the ride-sharing service in 72 countries.

Uber is correct in assuming that consumers from other countries would also appreciate the

low cost, convenience, and freedom that its app services offer.

Even though it is successful in some countries, many countries have regulatory hurdles that

have caused trouble for Uber to successfully operate in these areas. Perhaps the biggest is

the failure to obtain licenses even though Uber drivers offer many of the same services as a

taxi. Governments have responded by banning Uber or Uber services due to the lack of

professional licenses for drivers. For instance, in Spain, Uber shut down its ride-sharing

service after a judge ruled that Uber drivers are not legally authorized to transport

passengers by unfairly competing against licensed taxi drivers. Uber has since returned to

Spain with UberX, which uses licensed drivers. Police in Cape Town, South Africa

impounded 33 cars operating with the Uber app because the drivers did not have a taxi

license. Police in Indonesia have been prompted by taxi and transportation operators to

investigate whether Uber’s start-up practices are illegal. Bans have also been instituted in

France, India, and Germany.


In 2011 Paris became the first city outside of the United States where Uber set up

operations. However, an attempt was made to ban one of its services because drivers did

not need to be licensed. French police even raided Uber’s Paris office. A French law was

passed mandating that operating a service that connects passengers to non-licensed

drivers is punishable with fines of over $300,000 and up to two years in prison. Hundreds of

Uber drivers in France were issued fines for operating illegally.

Uber challenged that law, claiming that it is unconstitutional because it hinders free

enterprise. A French court decided against banning Uber’s service and sent the case to a

higher court. This has generated strong criticism from taxicab officials in France as they

claim that they have to license drivers while Uber is currently free from this restriction.

French courts later ruled against Uber, and the company no longer uses unlicensed drivers

in the country.


India is Uber’s second largest market after the United States. India rejected Uber’s

application for a taxi license. In New Delhi a woman’s rape allegation led to a ban against

app-based services without radio-taxi permits in the capital. In response to the alleged rape, Uber began installing “panic button” and tracking features to its app. Uber also began

offering its service in New Delhi without charging booking or service fees.

Despite these changes, Uber continued to run afoul of Indian authorities. India asked

Internet service providers to block Uber’s websites because it continued to operate in the

city despite being banned. However, it did not ban the apps themselves because doing so

would require it to institute the ban across the entire country. Uber must tread carefully to

seize upon opportunities in India without violating regulatory requirements. This is more

difficult as Uber drivers are independent contractors that set their own schedules and make

their own decisions about whether to work.


In 2015 a German court banned Uber services if they used unlicensed drivers. Uber argued

in court that the company itself is only an agent to connect driver and rider. Rules that apply

to taxi services do not apply, and all services are deemed to be legal, according to Uber.

The court ruled that Uber’s business model clearly infringes the Personal Transportation

Law, because drivers transport riders without a personal transportation license. The

injunction includes a fine of more than $260,000 per ride for non compliance. If the

injunction is breached, drivers could go to jail for up to half a year, in addition to an

imposition of fines. The German Taxi Association (Taxi Deutschland) was pleased with the

outcome and claimed that taxi services will remain in the hands of qualified people and keep

everyone safer. Despite the ruling, an Uber spokesperson said that the company will not

give up on Germany because other Uber services that use licensed drivers remain

unaffected by the District Court’s verdict.

2-5 Uber Addresses Risks

Long-term sustainability of Uber depends on managing future risks in five key areas:

1. Drivers: The number of disgruntled drivers could get out of control if Uber increases its

profit share deductions. With recent laws mandating healthcare insurance, drivers

may require healthcare coverage. Training programs to improve driving skills could

reduce risk from negligent drivers and decrease liability insurance costs. Additionally,

if Uber successfully expands into the autonomous car industry, it will most likely have

to deal with resistance as autonomous vehicles could reduce and/or eliminate the

need for drivers. Finally, strong competition in the industry has caused Uber to make

changes in how it compensates drivers, which has prompted some drivers to complain

that they cannot make a sustainable income.

2. Competitors: Uber’s business model can be found in similar rides-for-hire services,

such as Lyft and the Indian ride-sharing service Ola. More rides-for-hires could

emerge, in addition to the everyday competition from taxis, limos, rental car

businesses, air travel, trains, and city and chartered buses. Switching costs for

customers are low, and because ride-sharing companies do not own their own fleets,

costs of operating are much less than in other industries. This means that Uber must

remain competitive if it wants to keep its customers loyal. Lyft is probably Uber’s

biggest competitor in the United States with 20 percent market share. Its smaller size

makes it easier for Lyft to subsidize drivers and lower fares. Expanding into the

autonomous car industry will also place Uber in competition with Google, Tesla, and

major automobile manufacturers that are also trying to enter the industry.

3. Customer Base: Increasing the demand for rides-for-services is a continuous or future

challenge that requires attention primarily to safety improvements and rates that have

a cost/benefit to both passengers and drivers. Unpredictable demand is a future risk

that could be met with product diversification. Currently, Uber offers technologyoriented

products, and it must continue to be competitive in an industry where there is

intense competition for rates.

4. Technology: Customers are wary of downloading apps, and some online businesses

have been hacked for credit card information. Uber could upgrade its database

security system to reduce financial or personal account information risks. Additionally,

success in the autonomous car industry will take a lot of investment from Uber, and many regulators are likely to be initially wary of self-driving cars—especially since

there are so few laws governing it.

5. Customer Satisfaction: Long waits, inexperienced drivers, and even sexual

harassment have been reported. Better Business Bureau complaints mainly involve

pricing and problems with service. Uber might use the Internet to check consumer

complaints and address them to improve customer satisfaction.

2-6 Conclusion

The emergence of Uber has influenced many services to follow the Uber business model.

There are similar firms that offer ride-sharing services, and there are firms that want to be

an Uber-type business in the way they deliver goods and services. For example,

Cargomatic has developed an app to help fill space on trucks. Cargomatic, which now

operates in California and New York, has been called the Uber for truckers because it

connects shippers with drivers who are looking for extra shipments to haul. This is signaling

a shift in the industry, in which people are the infrastructure rather than buildings or fleets of

vehicles. Uber faces a number of ethical challenges, including regulatory and legal issues both inside and outside of the United States. Laws that protect consumers specifically target taxi services, whereas Uber defines its services as “ride sharing” and Uber as an “agent” of their “individual contractors.” However, many courts do not view its services in the same way and are forcing Uber to comply with licensing laws or stop business in certain areas. Additionally,snafus by Travis Kalanick and Uber’s aggressive corporate culture has led to Kalanick’s resignation as CEO.Despite Uber’s challenges, the company has become widely popular among consumers and independent contractors. Supporters claim that Uber is revolutionizing the transportation service industry. Investors clearly believe Uber is going to be strong in the market in the long run. Uber has a bright future and expansion opportunities are great. It is therefore important for Uber to ensure the safety of its riders and the drivers. It should also adopt controls to ensure that independent contractors using its app obey relevant country laws. Uber has to address these issues to uphold the trust of its customers and achieve long-term market success.

2-7 Chapter Review

2-7a Questions for Discussion

1. What are the ethical challenges that Uber faces in using app-based peer-topeer

sharing technology?

2. Since Uber is using a disruptive business model and marketing strategy, what

are the risks that the company will have to overcome to be successful?

3. Because Uber is so popular and the business model is being expanded to

other industries, should there be regulation to develop compliance with

standards to protect competitors and consumers?


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Write 55 pages thesis on the topic marketing a new service. The service thus conceived has the potential to generate revenue from two channels- the insurer and the medical centers. This is explained i

Write 55 pages thesis on the topic marketing a new service. The service thus conceived has the potential to generate revenue from two channels- the insurer and the medical centers. This is explained in greater detail in the section titled “The Proposed Service”.

Targeting the ideal customers delineated as those who would need minimum financial outlay for the sale to close. These could be customers who are already buying from the company and would therefore be receptive to new ideas

This paper begins with a review of literature which explores the key marketing concepts and principles that can be applied to the marketing of a new product or service. The review focuses on marketing of services, how the marketing of service differs from that of product and how the environment impacts marketing strategy and marketing efforts. The section reviews the 4 Ps of marketing, SWOT analysis, McKinsey’s 7S model, stakeholder analysis, PESTLE analysis and BSC model.

The next section of this paper explains in detail the service being proposed, and analyses its profitability and feasibility. It discusses in detail about the marketing environment and gives background on the company that will launch this service. The section explores how marketing concepts discussed in the review of literature apply to this innovative service.

2. Review of Literature

Traditionally, marketing is explained as anything that creates business or keeps a customer. Blanchard (2003) states that customers are the reason for a company to stay in business and thus customer input and customer preferences must shape almost all aspects of work. It is also said that Marketing consists of the strategies and tactics used to identify, create and maintain satisfying relationships with customers that result in value for both the customer and the marketer. This definition can be explained further. Strategies refer to the direction that marketing effort will assume over a period of time, while tactics are specified steps or decisions made in order to follow the strategies established.

Show more 


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Which Of The Following Guidelines Should Be Followed For Creating A Template That Supports Effective Visual Communication?

Question 1 of 20

Which of the following guidelines should be followed for creating a template that supports effective visual communication?

A.  Avoid templates with decorative, nonfunctional graphics.

B.  Use highly ornate symbols as bullets.

C.  Avoid including slide numbers.

D.  Use dramatic color gradations on backgrounds.

Question 2 of 20

If a presentation requires the audience to discuss the pros and cons of outsourcing work as opposed to hiring an intern, the presentation will be __________.

A.  informational

B.  persuasive

C.  instructional

D.  collaborative

Question 3 of 20

Max is going to make a presentation to his boss regarding a flex-time schedule. Max knows that his boss does not accept arguments based solely on employee happiness or satisfaction. Which of the following would be the best approach for Max?

A.  During the presentation, Max should stress that in a recent company survey the majority of employees were found to be in favor of a flex-time schedule.

B.  During the presentation, Max should emphasize that work/life balance is one of the biggest issues facing corporate America today.

C.  During the presentation, Max should relate anecdotal evidence from other companies that have implemented a flex-time schedule, showing how it has improved the lives of individual employees.

D.  During the presentation, Max should provide research which shows that flex-time scheduling is directly related to increased productivity and decreased employee turnover.

Question 4 of 20

Jane needs to create a presentation to teach her co-workers how to work with a new database system. This means that her presentation will be __________.

A.  informational

B.  persuasive

C.  instructional

D.  collaborative

Question 5 of 20

__________ help you see the big picture of a presentation before you get too involved with creating individual slides.

A.  Animations

B.  Storyboards

C.  Slide decks

D.  Message headlines

Question 6 of 20

Which of the following is considered part of analyzing your setting?

A.  Who are the key players?

B.  What are the needs of your audience?

C.  Will you be using your own computer to present slides?

D.  How far do you need to move your audience before they act?

Question 7 of 20

Which of the following is a goal of the opening of a presentation?

A.  establishing rapport with the audience

B.  analyzing the requirements of the audience

C.  identifying the tools that will be needed during the presentation

D.  visualizing the outcome of the presentation

Question 8 of 20

For most business presentations, the main message should __________.

A.  not include a solution to the problem discussed in the presentation

B.  lead your audience to the intended outcome

C.  not highlight what the audience will gain from the presentation

D.  take the presenter’s rather than the audience’s point of view

Question 9 of 20

__________ are recommended when you want to encourage an audience to collaborate and create content.

A.  Whiteboards

B.  Video conferences

C.  Slides

D.  Podcasts

Question 10 of 20

Which of the following would be the most effective way to begin a presentation on implementing a new training program?

A.  Our current training system is not up to par.

B.  Are you aware that our training system is outdated?

C.  Three out of five employees are not sufficiently prepared for their jobs by our current training system.

D.  Training is very important to the success of our company.

Question 11 of 20

If the intended outcome of your presentation is for your audience to approve funding for new teleconferencing hardware and software, then your presentation is __________.

A.  informational

B.  persuasive

C.  instructional

D.  collaborative

Question 12 of 20

The question-and-answer session with the audience during your presentation __________.

A.  helps you build your credibility by demonstrating your expertise and openness

B.  does not allow you to deflect or address your audience’s criticism

C.  undermines and trivializes the important parts of your presentation

D.  does not allow you to emphasize and expand on important points

Question 13 of 20

Susanna wants to make a demonstration during her presentation that involves sharing some content with her audience that is not available in electronic form. In this situation, which of the following would be the most appropriate medium?

A.  props

B.  podcasts

C.  videos

D.  flipcharts

Question 14 of 20

Which of the following statements is true regarding the use of a document camera during a presentation?

A.  It encourages the audience to collaborate, interact, and create content.

B.  It helps with communicating complex material that people need to look at carefully.

C.  It is used for presenting to a distant audience accessible by computer technology.

D.  It can be used to share content that is not in electronic form.

Question 15 of 20

A slide master __________.

A.  is a word processing tool

B.  enforces consistency in your visual elements

C.  saves you time but runs the risk of inconsistent formatting

D.  is useful as it allows you to cut and paste the formatting from one slide to the next

Question 16 of 20

Rosie includes detailed text of her speech for a presentation on slides so that she can use it as her “speaking script.” This is __________.

A.  a good idea, as this will give her the fluency required for the presentation

B.  a good idea, as white spaces on slides are undesirable

C.  a poor idea, because this layout will let the audience know what she is going to say in advance

D.  a poor idea, since the audience can absorb more if the slides contain less information

Question 17 of 20

Ellen is trying to get a sense of the overall structure of her slide presentation. She sketches headlines and ideas for the body of the slides on some Post-It notes, rearranging them as necessary. Ellen is creating a(n. __________ for her presentation.

A.  template

B.  storyboard

C.  slide master

D.  animation

Question 18 of 20

The more specific your objective, __________.

A.  the more time it will take to create an effective presentation

B.  the longer your presentation will need to be to be effective

C.  the easier it will be to create an effective presentation

D.  the less persuasive your presentation will be

Question 19 of 20

If a slide deck makes “stand-alone sense,” then it means that the slide deck __________.

A.  is comprehensible only by those people who have prior knowledge of the topic

B.  includes every word the presenter plans to say

C.  requires supporting documents like handouts for it to be understood

D.  can be understood by anyone who reads it without the benefit of the presenter

Question 20 of 20

The first step in the process of designing slide presentations is __________.

A.  organizing the content

B.  developing a template

C.  identifying the type of presentation

D.  creating a storyboard


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 Post an executive summary of your comprehensive project in the body of a post in this discussion

 Post an executive summary of your comprehensive project in the body of a post in this discussion (please do not use attachments). An executive summary is a one-page document that outlines the purpose, process, findings, discussion, and findings of a report submitted to management. Chief executive officers (CEOs) often read and assess an executive summary before deciding to read the entire report, so this must be a high-quality narrative that demonstrates the significance of the work undertaken, the objectivity of research and analysis underpinning the report, and the credibility of the resulting conclusions.

objectives to keep in mind


Assess opposing views of current polices and the implications from both sides.

Differentiate between the demands of legal policies, ethical issues with relevance to the needs of the provider and patient.

Explain the value of various policies and procedures at the federal, state and local levels as they relate to the provision of healthcare and patient rights.

 Post an executive summary of your comprehensive project in the body of a post in this discussion (please do not use attachments). An executive summary is a one-page document that outlines the purpose, process, findings, discussion, and findings of a report submitted to management. Chief executive officers (CEOs) often read and assess an executive summary before deciding to read the entire report, so this must be a high-quality narrative that demonstrates the significance of the work undertaken, the objectivity of research and analysis underpinning the report, and the credibility of the resulting conclusions.

objectives to keep in mind


Assess opposing views of current polices and the implications from both sides.

Differentiate between the demands of legal policies, ethical issues with relevance to the needs of the provider and patient.

Explain the value of various policies and procedures at the federal, state and local levels as they relate to the provision of healthcare and patient rights.


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create a compensation and benefits package using this business proposal formatPreview the document. T

Now that you have considered how to recruit and retain the employees you want in your organization, create a compensation and benefits package using this business proposal formatPreview the document. The package must be consistent with the objectives of job satisfaction for the valuable employees in an organization of your design.

Include the following:

•Salaries and benefits packages of comparable organizations in the same industry.

•What employees working in the 21st century consider to be benefits (see this week’s recommended readings for a start).

•What helps to keep employees engaged in their work (see State of the American workplace: Employee engagement for U.S. business leaders https://www.gallup.com/services/176708/state-american-workplace.aspx 

(Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. and

Surprising, Disturbing Facts from the Mother of All Employee Engagement Surveys https://www.forbes.com/sites/victorlipman/2013/09/23/surprising-disturbing-facts-from-the-mother-of-all-employee-engagement-surveys/#2392bfdc3120 (Links to an external site.). for some ideas).

Please review the Word 2010 create and edit tables (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. video. Closed captioning and transcript of the video is provided in the tool bar of the video player  Your business proposal must be formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center, must include a separate reference page, and must include citations from the text and at least four scholarly sources, one of which must be from the Ashford University Library.


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Think about an experience you had where you felt extremely motivated. In a 3- to 4-page paper, analyze this experience according to the experiential format below.

MGT501 MOD 1 Case Assignment

Module 1 – Case

Managing Individual Behavior

Case Assignment

man thinking Think about an experience you had where you felt extremely motivated. In a 3- to 4-page paper, analyze this experience according to the experiential format below. Each subtitle represents a different section of the paper.  You can use the subtitles as headings.

Introduction: Discuss the topic of the paper and how you will approach it. It is best to write this section after you have written the rest of the paper.

The Experience: Begin with a specific situation/event. Describe the experience where you felt extremely motivated. Be objective and focus on just the facts: who, what, where, when, and how.

Reflection: Reflect upon that experience from the multiple perspectives of other people involved or affected in the experience. Step back from the situation, look at the experience from your own viewpoint, and the viewpoints of other parties involved or affected. Look at the circumstances surrounding the experience from every relevant perspective. Why was the experience motivating to you? What did others do that increased your motivation? Was the situation (or would the situation) also be motivating to others? (Note: Your discussion of theories and models from your module materials belongs in the following section.)

Abstract Conceptualization: [Important: This Abstract Conceptualization section is the “heart” of your paper. Use critical thinking skills to understand and interpret the experience at a deeper, more generalizable level. Interpret and understand the events you have described by drawing on the concepts, theories, and models in the background material from this module. What behavior patterns can you identify in yourself and others that are similar to the ones described in the material on motivation, values, and/or goals? How do these concepts and principles explain why you were motivated? What general principles of motivation can you derive from this analysis? Apply at least three concepts, theories, and/or models and cite all references to concepts and ideas that you use from sources. Be sure to cite all references to concepts, ideas, and quotes you use that come from any outside source.

Experimentation: Identify ways to respond to the next occurrence of a similar experience. How are you going to put what you have learned to use? How will you use this knowledge to motivate yourself and others? What actions will you take to create a work environment that is motivating?

Conclusion: Sum up the main points of your analysis and the key learnings you are taking from it.

Reference List: List all references that you have cited in the paper using APA formatting.  References include materials from the required background readings as well as any outside Internet or library sources you used in researching and writing your paper. If you have APA questions, refer to the optional listings on the Background page.

Assignment Expectations

Your paper will be evaluated using the criteria as stated in the Case grading rubric. The following is a review of the rubric criteria:

· Assignment-Driven: Does the paper fully address all aspects of the assignment?  Is the assignment addressed accurately and precisely using sound logic? Does the paper meet minimum length requirements?

· Critical Thinking: Does the paper demonstrate graduate-level analysis, in which information derived from multiple sources, expert opinions, and assumptions has been critically evaluated and synthesized in the formulation of a logical set of conclusions? Does the paper address the topic with sufficient depth of discussion and analysis?

· Business Writing: Is the essay logical, well organized and well written? Are the grammar, spelling, and vocabulary appropriate for graduate-level work? Are section headings included? Are paraphrasing and synthesis of concepts the primary means of responding, or is justification/support instead conveyed through excessive use of direct quotations?

· Effective Use of Information: Does the submission demonstrate that the student has read, understood and can apply the background materials for the module? If required, has the student demonstrated effective research, as evidenced by student’s use of relevant and quality (library?) sources? Do additional sources used provide strong support for conclusions drawn, and do they help in shaping the overall paper?

· Citing Sources: Does the student demonstrate understanding of APA Style of referencing, by inclusion of proper citations (for paraphrased text and direct quotations) as appropriate? Have all sources (e.g., references used from the Background page, the assignment readings, and outside research) been included, and are these properly cited? Have all sources cited in the paper been included on the References page?

· Timeliness: Has the assignment been submitted to TLC (Trident’s learning management system) on or before the module’s due date?


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– SLP Assignment MGT501 Managing Individual Behavior The SLP for this course involves making a personal assessment of a relevant set of skills

Module 1 – SLP Assignment MGT501

Managing Individual Behavior

The SLP for this course involves making a personal assessment of a relevant set of skills, focusing on your strengths and identifying any weaknesses that may have been revealed. You will then create a plan by which you can “grow” your strengths and shore up your weaknesses. By the end of the project, you will have a personal management profile and action plan.

As we have discussed, your values and attitudes interact with your personality to create a strong effect on your work life. The fit between an individual’s personality and a company’s “style” is essential to job satisfaction. Someone who is risk-averse, for example, would probably be unhappy at 3M, a company with a reputation for innovation and risk-taking.  Understanding the impact of your own personality on others helps you build productive work relationships with peers, subordinates, and bosses, alike.

Refer to the required and optional sources for this module, and any other materials which will help you in understanding personality styles and how they affect organizational effectiveness.  Remember to follow Trident’s guidelines for masters-level writing. (See The Student Guide to Writing a High-Quality Academic Paper .)


Click on this link to access and complete the Jung Typology  personality test. After you complete the test, you will want to read the description, but in order to fully understand what this test measures, you should also review “Personality Type explained.” Then review the pages on career choices, learning style and communication skills. Incorporate this information in formulating your responses to the questions below.

Include the actual results in an appendix at the end of your paper. (Note: This appendix requirement will likely increase your paper’s Turnitin similarity score; however, your professor is aware of this.)

Prepare a 2- to 3-page essay that addresses the following:

How does my personality type affect my career and effectiveness at my job?


· What did the test reveal about you?

· What can you infer from this test about your strengths and weaknesses?

· How does what you have learned from your module background materials about your personality type affect your motivation? Is this limited to a specific type of situation?

· What specific steps can you take to increase your strengths and build up weaknesses?

Refer to at least two module readings plus any other materials to help you in understand personality styles and how they affect organizational effectiveness. Complete the assessment according to the guidelines. Include the actual results in an Appendix section as the last page of your paper.

Follow the writing guidelines and other sources listed under the Optional Materials heading on the Module 1 Background page.

SLP Assignment Expectations

Your paper will be evaluated using the criteria on the SLP rubric (see the rubric for more detail): Assignment-Driven, Critical Thinking, Business Writing, Effective Use of Information, Citing Sources, and Timeliness.

You can find the rubric under Assessments>Rubrics at the top of the page.

Jung Test Results

Jung Typology Test™

This free personality test is based on Carl Jung’s and Isabel Briggs Myers’ personality type theory. business users – use advanced version »

Upon completion of the questionnaire, you will:

Obtain your 4-letter type formula according to Carl Jung’s and Isabel Briggs Myers’ typology, along with the strengths of preferences and the description of your personality type

Discover careers and occupations most suitable for your personality type along with examples of educational institutions where you can get a relevant degree or training

Understand communication and learning styles of your type.

See which famous personalities share your type

Be able to use the results of this test as an input into the Jung Marriage Test™ to assess your compatibility with your long-term romantic partner

Instructions »

When responding to the statements, please choose the response you agree with most. If you are not sure how to answer, make your choice based on your most typical response or feeling in the given situation. Selecting an upper case “YES” means strong agreement, and checking a lower case “yes” means moderate agreement. Likewise, selecting an upper case “NO” means strong disagreement, and checking a lower case “no” means moderate disagreement. Selecting “uncertain” means you do not feel strongly either way about the given situation. To get a reliable result, please respond to all questions. When you are done with answering, press the “Score It!” button at the bottom of the screen.

For Organizations and Professionals

Organizations and specialists interested in personality assessments based on Jung’s typology please visit


where we offer personality assessments for:

candidate assessment and pre-employment screening

leadership and staff development

Click here to explore team building

career counseling

integrated solutions


1:1 Personality Compatibility Report

We offer team building and leadership workshops .

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Carl Jung’s and Isabel Briggs Myers’ typology Personality Test Results for me

· Personality Type Explained

· 16 Types

















· More

· 16 Personality Types: Careers

· 16 Personality Types: Communication Strategies Communication Strategies

· 16 Personality Types: Learning Styles Learning Styles

· 16 Personality Types: Leadership Styles Leadership Styles

· Determine Other People’s Personality


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Extraverted iNtuitive Thinking Judging

“I don’t care to sit by the window on an airplane. If I can’t control it, why look?”

ENTJs have a natural tendency to marshall and direct. This may be expressed with the charm and finesse of a world leader or with the insensitivity of a cult leader. The ENTJ requires little encouragement to make a plan. One ENTJ put it this way… “I make these little plans that really don’t have any importance to anyone else, and then feel compelled to carry them out.” While “compelled” may not describe ENTJs as a group, nevertheless the bent to plan creatively and to make those plans reality is a common theme for NJ types.

ENTJs are often “larger than life” in describing their projects or proposals. This ability may be expressed as salesmanship, story-telling facility or stand-up comedy. In combination with the natural propensity for filibuster, our hero can make it very difficult for the customer to decline.

Personality Types: ENTJ

TRADEMARK: — “I’m really sorry you have to die.” (I realize this is an overstatement. However, most Fs and other gentle souls usually chuckle knowingly at this description.)

ENTJs are decisive. They see what needs to be done, and frequently assign roles to their fellows. Few other types can equal their ability to remain resolute in conflict, sending the valiant (and often leading the charge) into the mouth of hell. When challenged, the ENTJ may by reflex become argumentative. Alternatively (s)he may unleash an icy gaze that serves notice: the ENTJ is not one to be trifled with.

(ENTJ stands for Extravert, iNtuitive, Thinking, Judging and represents individual’s preferences in four dimensions characterising personality type, according to Jung’s and Briggs Myers’ theories of personality type.)

Your Type Preferences

Extravert(9%) iNtuitive(19%) Thinking(3%) Judging(28%)

Because you appear to have marginal or no (3%) preference of Thinking over Feeling, characteristics of more than one personality type may apply to you: ENTJ and ENFJ.


Functional Analysis Of The ENTJ

Based on Jung’s framework of cognitive functions

Extraverted Thinking

“Unequivocating” expresses the resoluteness of the ENTJ’s dominant function. Clarity of convictions endows these Thinkers with a knack for debate, or wanting knack, a penchant for argument. The light and heat generated by Thinking at the helm can be impressive; perhaps even overwhelming. Experience teaches many ENTJs that restraint may often be the better part of valor, lest one find oneself victorious but alone.

Introverted iNtuition

The auxiliary function explores the blueprints of archetypal patterns and equips Thinking with a fresh, dynamic sense of how things work. Improvising on the fly is something many ENTJs do very well. As Thinking’s subordinate, insights are of value only insofar as they further the Right, True Cause celebre. [n.b.: ENTJs are capable of living on a higher plane, if you will, and learning to value individuals even above their principles. The above dynamic suggests less individuation.]

Extraverted Sensing

Sensing reaches out to embrace that which physically touches it. ENTJs have an awareness of the real; of that which exists. By stilling the engines of Thinking and iNtuition, this type may experience the Here and Now, and know things not dreamt of nor even postulated in iNtuition’s philosophy. Sensing’s minor role, however, puts it at risk for distortion or extreme weakness beneath the hustle and bustle of the giants N and T.

Introverted Feeling

Feeling is romantic, as the ethereal as the inner world from whence it doth emerge. When it be awake, feeling evokes great passion that knows not nuance of proportion nor context. Perhaps these lesser functions inspire glorious recreational quests in worlds that never were, or may only ever be in fantasy. When overdone or taken too seriously, Fi turned outward often becomes maudlin or melodramatic. Feeling in this type appears most authentic when implied or expressed covertly in a firm handshake, accepting demeanor, or act of sacrifice thinly covered by excuses of lack of any personal interest in the relinquished item.

ENTJ Career Choices for me

Extravert(9%) iNtuitive(19%) Thinking(3%) Judging(28%)

ENTJs often find themselves in occupations that require good analytical and planning skills. ENTJs build successful careers in those areas that require considerable organizational skills and intellectual effort, in occupations that present a challenge and call for creativity. They are greatly represented in technological and management consulting companies among engineers and developers, and among high- and mid-rank managers. They are also able to realize their potential in start-ups where they often fulfill management positions or take responsibility for the whole project.

JCI Jung Career Indicator™ determines occupations and areas in which people of your type find themselves most fulfilled and content, are most successful, and in which they are likely most represented. The following table lists some examples of areas of occupation suitable from a personality type standpoint, along with examples of educational institutions* where you can receive a relevant degree or training. The table factors in the expressiveness of the four traits of your personality type: Extravert(9%) iNtuitive(19%) Thinking(3%) Judging(28%). Therefore, ENTJ type persons with different expressiveness scores might get a somewhat different list. Areas of occupation that are more aligned with your result appear first. Click occupation names and school logos to request program information.


Click to explore click to explore Management  Click to explore click to explore
Business Management
American InterContinental University Ashford University Grand Canyon University Herzing University
Management of Education
Liberty University Online Capella University American InterContinental University Walden University
Military Education
Ashford University Norwich University
Kaplan University Ashford University Norwich University
Click to explore click to explore Social Services  Click to explore click to explore
American InterContinental University Kaplan University Keiser University
Capella University Walden University Grand Canyon University
Click to explore click to explore Technical/Science  Click to explore click to explore
Norwich University
Industrial Management
American InterContinental University
Manufacturing Management
American InterContinental University
Higher/Post-secondary Education
Liberty University Online Capella University Ashford University American InterContinental University
Computer Science and Software EngineeringU.S. News 25 Best Jobs 2012
American InterContinental University Strayer University Capella University Herzing University


ENTJ Entrepreneur?

In fact, anyone can be an entrepreneur. There are many factors influencing how successful an entrepreneur can be, and your personality preferences is one of the very important ones. Identifying a line of business and size that fits your entrepreneurial personality preferences helps mitigating risks and increasing chances of being more successful and more content. Determine most favorable for you size and kinds of businesses and franchises with Entrepreneur Quiz » .

Your Type Preferences

Extravert(9%) iNtuitive(19%) Thinking(3%) Judging(28%)

Because you appear to have marginal or no (3%) preference of Thinking over Feeling, characteristics of more than one personality type may apply to you: ENTJ and ENFJ.


Career Choices and Risk Attitudes

Risk? or Safety?

One of the main reasons for difficulties in a career is inconsistency between person’s natural risk attitudes (like risk aversion or, on the contrary, risk seeking) and career steps they are taking. This inconsistency leads to stress and emotional discomfort, reduces confidence in your own abilities, adversely affecting your career. Take the Risk Attitudes Quiz to understand your risk type and gain additional insights.

Risk Attitudes Quiz comes in handy when considering a job or changing the course of your career, especially if you:

· lack self-confidence which is keeping you from taking the next step toward your dream job.

· are over-analytical and cannot stop debating alternatives.

· are looking to achieve sustainability in your career.

· change your course too often and want to find out the potential cause for that.

Take the Risk Attitudes Quiz » to see if the career decisions you make are in line with the risk attitudes that match your personality.

Education Tips

· Education is a huge investment of time and money so be ready to ask a lot of questions of any college or university you are considering. Therefore, create a list of questions and take notes as you get your answers while talking to an enrolment advisor or when signing up and requesting information.

· Be wary of any school that is unable to or refuses to answer any of your questions. A degree is a long-term commitment and choosing a college or university that understands and can meet your needs should be one of your top priorities.

· Sign up and request information from several schools so that you can compare and, if possible, negotiate more favourable conditions.

· There is no such thing as the “perfect” college or university. Stay open minded and realize that any number of schools may be a good fit for you and provide you with the degree and student services that you need.

Important aspects you should pay attention to include:

· School’s accreditation

· Financial aid offered

· Tuition and fees. What’s included and what isn’t. Payment plans.

· Student services available

· Instructors’ credentials

· How tests are administered

· Time required to complete the program

· How long the program has been offered and how many students have enrolled

· Key dates

· Any requirements or pre-requisites

· Previous: ENTJ Type Description

ENTJ Learning Style for me

How ENTJs acquire, memorize and recollect information

An ENTJ’s interest in learning a subject lies in the answer to the question “Will this help me solve a problem?” If the answer is yes, the more thoroughly and extensively they can learn how, the greater the ENTJ’s interest in the given topic, and the greater their desire to apply what they learn. Their interest in studying something is driven both by the desire to learn about ideas of popular interest, as well as by the need to find practical solutions to pressing problems.

ENTJs are easily receptive to learning material when it is presented in a theoretical form, and new information flows logically from information given earlier. This type has a comprehensive understanding of new material and immediately grasps how it can be applied in various ways. ENTJs learn well in an organized educational system (e.g., an organized degree or certification program), but learn just as well from sources not unified by a single formal learning process (e.g., individual courses or readings).

They are capable of mechanical memorization, although the amount retained this way is less than when memorization is based on a generalized understanding of the material. ENTJs retain information best when it is presented from various perspectives and using various examples. Memorizing material presented as a collection of poorly interrelated items is mentally straining for an ENTJ.

ENTJs are capable of actively applying material they have learned well to their work. They are able to use it in clearly defined applications as well as by drawing creative conclusions on how it can be used for other purposes.

ENTJs are able to remain very stable when experiencing a high level of learning related stress. They prefer to evenly distribute their efforts in learning new material, although they are capable of learning through short periods of overexertion.

Your Type Preferences

Extravert(9%) iNtuitive(19%) Thinking(3%) Judging(28%)

Because you appear to have marginal or no (3%) preference of Thinking over Feeling, characteristics of more than one personality type may apply to you: ENTJ and ENFJ.


An ENTJ’s learning is improved when:

· Learning is systematic and intensive

· Material is presented on a conceptual basis

· Material is presented as unexplored and of popular interest

· Active learning methods such as debates, brainstorming and contests are used

· Their learning-related successes and achievements are recognized by others

· Material is delivered at a fast pace, as ENTJs quickly sort and process information

An ENTJ’s learning is hindered when:

· Material is of no strong personal interest to the ENTJ

· Material is trivial

· The knowledge received does not significantly expand the boundaries of their understanding and opportunities for application in the given area

· What they learn is insufficient to allow them to present themselves as knowledgeable on the topic

· Previous: ENTJ Career Choices

· Next: ENTJ Communication Skills

· You: ENTJ

· Your Business

» Type Description » Career Choices » Learning Style » Communication Skills » Famous ENTJs

» Personality Type Explained

» Premium Report » Organizations & Business Users » Humanmetrics Blog » Hate your manager? » Introversion is not a four-letter word » Take learning into your own hands

The 16 personality types

ENTJ Communication Skills for me

ENTJs respect and maintain the manners and order accepted in their circle. They may often come across as demanding, but as a rule, not when it comes to minor issues. ENTJs are ready to share their opinion with those around them and to find out theirs. At the same time, they often strive to ensure that their opinion be the one recognized as the right one. Their objective, business-like, confident and at times bossy conversation style can be upsetting to people of a more feeling type or result in counteraction on the part of others who are also disposed toward leadership.

ENTJs can encounter difficulties when communication requires finer soft skills, such as being very tactful or particularly patient, or involves the finer feelings of the soul. The topics of love or lyric poetry can fail to elicit a strong emotional response in them. At the same time, they often take an active part at events or gatherings related to expressions of feelings, for instance, in organizing charity or other public events.

ENTJs usually have a large social circle including their friends, colleagues, and contacts made at parties, gatherings, during time off work or entertainment events they might be attending.

Business communication of ENTJs tends to be pretty intense. Their colleagues (or others who work in the same field) often find it important or necessary to get their authoritative and/or expert opinion on professional subjects. For ENTJs, communication usually includes opinions, ideas, discussing organizational management aspects and practical solutions.

Your Type Preferences

Extravert(9%) iNtuitive(19%) Thinking(3%) Judging(28%)

Because you appear to have marginal or no (3%) preference of Thinking over Feeling, characteristics of more than one personality type may apply to you: ENTJ and ENFJ.


ENTJ: Strategies for Successful Communication

It is easy for ENTJs to find common ground with people of the same mindset, or to put it differently, with people that also belong to the intuitive/thinking group (NT) that includes ENTJ, INTJ, ENTP, and INTP personality types. People in this group see the world in a similar way, so ENTJs find it easy to share their views with other NTs and are, in turn, disposed toward comprehending reasoning or views of other NTs.

For effective communication with people in the sensory/thinking group (ST) including ESTJ, ISTJ, ESTP and ISTP personality types, it is best for ENTJs to mostly keep to communication based upon facts, and their direct consequences. Overall, such communication style is pretty compatible with ENTJs and they find it easy to adapt to it. As for people in the ST group, this style of communication is very suited to their way of thinking, and should be well understood.

When communicating with people in the intuitive/feeling group (NF) including ENFJ, INFJ, ENFP, and INFP personality types, ENTJs need to mostly keep to communication based upon ideas, concepts and theories. Conversations between ENTJs and representatives of this group often touch on multiple aspects of the discussion topics and are beneficial to both sides. While ENTJs try to keep to the objective view, whereas a significant proportion of representatives of the NF group judge based on their feelings, nevertheless the parties often find common ground necessary for effective communication and problem solving.

Greater difficulty occurs between ENTJs and representatives of the sensory/feeling group (SF) including ESFJ, ISFJ, ESFP, and ISFP personality types. During conversation with people in this group ENTJs should keep to communication based upon feelings, facts and actual sensations. The problem, however, lies in the fact that ENTJ find it difficult to keep up communicating in this way. They end up needing to strain in order to put forward argumentation that can be understood by the SFs, which often leads to ENTJs trying to wrap up the conversation, or losing interest since the other party doesn’t “get it”. In order to ensure a level of communication suitable for both sides, ENTJs should adjust themselves beforehand to a conversation style that suits SF people.

How to determine which personality type group another person belongs to?

What helps successful communication for an ENTJ:

· A need to find hidden, unobvious possibilities

· The topic of conversation requires good understanding of logical connections and the development course of events

· The topic of discussion is conceptual in nature

· A need for a creative approach to the discussion topic

· The subject being discussed requires an active response

What hinders successful communication for an ENTJ:

· Discussion material with weak logical connections

· Discussion material of a purely practical and mundane nature

· The conversation involves the finer feelings of the soul for too long

Read more about communication strategies »

· Previous: ENTJ Learning Style

Famous ENTJs in relation to me

Extraverted iNtuitive Thinking Judging

U.S. Presidents:

· Franklin D. Roosevelt

· Richard M. Nixon

Lamar Alexander (US Senator) Les Aspen, former U.S. Secretary of Defense Candace Bergen (Murphy Brown) Jim Carrey (Ace Ventura: Pet Detective, The Mask) Rahm Emanuel, White House Chief of Staff Harrison Ford Newt Gingrich Whoopi Goldberg Benny Goodman, “Big Band” leader Al Gore (U.S Vice President, 1993-2001) Penn Jillette Steve Jobs Dave Letterman Steve Martin General Norman Schwarzkopf Patrick Stewart (STNG: Jean Luc Picard) Margaret Thatcher Robert James Waller (author: The Bridges of Madison County) Sigourney Weaver

Typology of Westeros: personality types of the characters from A Song of Ice and Fire fantasy novel series (you may have seen its Game of Thrones TV adaptation).

(by Joe Butt – published under license)

Your Type Preferences

Extravert(9%) iNtuitive(19%) Thinking(3%) Judging(28%)

Because you appear to have marginal or no (3%) preference of Thinking over Feeling, characteristics of more than one personality type may apply to you: ENTJ and ENFJ.

Would you like to find prominent people whose personality traits are close to yours?

http://www.humanmetrics.com/images/celebrities.jpg The Role Model Quiz compares your risk profile with the profiles of two hundred prominent people. It then lists the ones who are most similar to you and tells you the percentage of similarity with each one.


· Previous: ENTJ Communication Skills

Personality Type Explained

According to Carl G. Jung’s theory of psychological types [Jung, 1971], people can be characterized by their preference of general attitude:

· Extraverted (E) vs. Introverted (I),

their preference of one of the two functions of perception:

· Sensing (S) vs. Intuition (N),

and their preference of one of the two functions of judging:

· Thinking (T) vs. Feeling (F)

The three areas of preferences introduced by Jung are dichotomies (i.e. bipolar dimensions where each pole represents a different preference). Jung also proposed that in a person one of the four functions above is dominant – either a function of perception or a function of judging. Isabel Briggs Myers, a researcher and practitioner of Jung’s theory, proposed to see the judging-perceiving relationship as a fourth dichotomy influencing personality type [Briggs Myers, 1980]:

· Judging (J) vs. Perceiving (P)

The first criterion, Extraversion – Introversion, signifies the source and direction of a person’s energy expression. An extravert’s source and direction of energy expression is mainly in the external world, while an introvert has a source of energy mainly in their own internal world.

The second criterion, Sensing – Intuition, represents the method by which someone perceives information. Sensing means that a person mainly believes information he or she receives directly from the external world. Intuition means that a person believes mainly information he or she receives from the internal or imaginative world.

The third criterion, Thinking – Feeling, represents how a person processes information. Thinking means that a person makes a decision mainly through logic. Feeling means that, as a rule, he or she makes a decision based on emotion, i.e. based on what they feel they should do.

The fourth criterion, Judging – Perceiving, reflects how a person implements the information he or she has processed. Judging means that a person organizes all of his life events and, as a rule, sticks to his plans. Perceiving means that he or she is inclined to improvise and explore alternative options.

All possible permutations of preferences in the 4 dichotomies above yield 16 different combinations, or personality types, representing which of the two poles in each of the four dichotomies dominates in a person, thus defining 16 different personality types. Each personality type can be assigned a 4 letter acronym of the corresponding combination of preferences:

The 16 personality types

The first letter in the personality type acronym corresponds to the first letter of the preference of general attitude – “E” for extraversion and “I” for introversion.

The second letter in the personality type acronym corresponds to the preference within the sensing-intuition dimension: “S” stands for sensing and “N” stands for intuition.

The third letter in the personality type acronym corresponds to the preference within the thinking-feeling pair: “T” stands for thinking and “F” stands for feeling.

The forth letter in the personality type acronym corresponds to a person’s preference within the judging-perceiving pair: “J” for judging and “P” for perception.

For example:

· ISTJ stands for Introverted, Sensing, Thinking, Judging

· ENFP stands for Extraverted, iNtuitive, Feeling, Perceiving

Your Type Preferences

Extravert(9%) iNtuitive(19%) Thinking(3%) Judging(28%)

Because you appear to have marginal or no (3%) preference of Thinking over Feeling, characteristics of more than one personality type may apply to you: ENTJ and ENFJ.


What do percentages next to the personality type words or letters mean?

Humanmetrics Jung Typology Test™ (JTT™) and Jung Typology Profiler for Workplace™ (JTPW™) instrument determine the expressiveness of each of the four personality type dimensions (Extraversion vs. Introversion, Sensing vs. Intuition, Thinking vs. Feeling, and Judging vs. Perceiving.)

In JTT™ and JTPW™, the scales of these four dimensions represent a continuum between two opposite poles, from 100 at one pole to 100 at another pole. I.e. Extravert-Introvert dimension is a continuum from 100 on Extraversion (i.e.  respondent is a 100% extravert) to 100 on Introversion (i.e.  respondent is a 100% introvert). In other words the scale is 200 units long:

Extravert [100% – – – 0% – – – 100%] Introvert

People may reveal features of both poles but typically have a preference of one way over the other. The letter indicates the preference and the percentage indicates the extent of it.

The E-I score of 0% means the respondent is at the borderline between being an extravert and an introvert. Having Extraversion score of greater than 0 – e.g. 20% – means being 20% more slanted toward Extraversion over Introversion. Having Introversion score of greater than 0 – e.g. 20% – means being 20% more slanted toward Introversion over Extraversion.

The same pertains to the S-N, T-F, and J-P dichotomies.

The Basics of Jung’s Typology

Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961)Jung called Extraversion-Introversion preference general attitude, since it reflects an individual’s attitude toward the external world distinguished by the “direction of general interest” [Jung, 1971]: the extravert maintains affinity for, and sources energy from the outer world, whereas the introvert is the other way around – their general interest is directed toward their inner world, which is the source of their energy.

As mentioned above, Jung introduced a pair of judging functions – thinking and feeling – and a pair of perception functions – sensing (or “sensation”), and intuition.

Sensing-Intuition preference represents the method by which one perceives information: Sensing means an individual mainly relies on concrete, actual information – “in so far as objects release sensations, they matter” [1], whereas Intuition means a person relies upon their conception about things based on their understanding of the world. Thinking-Feeling preference indicates the way an individual processes information. Thinking preference means an individual makes decisions based on logical reasoning, and is less affected by feelings and emotions. Feeling preference means that an individual’s base for decisions is mainly feelings and emotions.

Jung introduced the idea of hierarchy and direction of psychological functions. According to Jung, one of the psychological functions – a function from either judging or perception pair – would be primary (also called dominant). In other words, one pole of the poles of the two dichotomies (Sensing-Feeling and Thinking-Feeling) dominates over the rest of the poles. The Extraversion-Introversion preference sets the direction of the dominant function: the direction points to the source of energy that feeds it – i.e. to the outer world for extraverts and to the inner world for introverts.

Jung suggested that a function from the other pair would be secondary (also called auxiliary) but still be “a determining factor” [Jung, 1971]. I.e. if Intuition is dominant, then the auxiliary one is either Thinking or Feeling. If Sensing is dominant, then the auxiliary one can also be either Thinking or Feeling. However, if Thinking is dominant, then the auxiliary one is either Sensing or Intuition, and if Feeling is dominant then the auxiliary one is either Sensing or Intuition. In other words, the auxiliary function never belongs to the same dichotomy.

Jung called feeling and thinking types “rational” because they are characterized by the dominance of judging functions that provide reasoning rationale (be it thinking or feeling). “Rational” or Judging preference results in thinking, feelings, response and behaviour that consciously operate in line with certain rules, principles or norms. People with dominant “rational” or judging preference perceive the world as an ordered structure that follows a set of rules.

He called sensing and intuitive types “irrational” because they are characterized by dominance of the functions of perception (either sensing or intuition), and therefore their “commissions and omissions are based not upon reasoned judgment but upon the absolute intensity of perception” [Jung, 1971]. “Irrational” or Perceiving preference operates with opportunities, i.e. with a range of possible outcomes that result from assumed premises or from sensations, mostly driven by the unconscious processes. People with dominant “irrational” or Perceiving preference see the world as a structure that can take various forms and outcomes. It is possible to determine, either by observation or by asking certain questions, preference of Judging vs. Perceiving and the strength thereof in a person.


1. Jung, C. G. (1971). Psychological types (Collected works of C. G. Jung, volume 6, Chapter X)

2. Briggs Myers, I. (1980, 1995) Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type



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initial phases of establishing a company or the business, it is very important to make sure it is


It is very important for the Human Resource Management to transform into the greater strategic contributor from the strategies of being a primarily administrative and operational contributor. In the growing technological and innovative business field, it is very important to run a company with greater profit-making strategies. In order to withstand the competition in their own industry, every company follows its own strategies (Bianca, 2017). As a part of this,  Human Resource Management professionals also transform to being strategic in their job to hire better persons for the benefit of the company.

In the initial phases of establishing a company or the business, it is very important to make sure it is administered and operated well. But once a company is established, it is highly important to withstand the heavy competition in its own industry (Ingram, n.d.). In order to have this strength of bearing immense force, every company needs to maintain some business strategies in the boundary of their outlined ethical guidelines. To implement these strategies well, it is very important for the business to have a good workforce to implement things effectively. In the process of hiring such employees or the resources for the company, human resource management plays a vital role and they transform from being administrative and operational primarily to a more strategic contributor.

Also, since the businesses are globally distributed today from the evolution of globalization, it has become the most important thing for HR management to be strategical (Wilkie, 2015). The strategies also change from place to place and situation to situation. The HR management should be highly adaptive in nature according to the situations and locations.


Bianca, A. (2017). Why Is It Important for HR Management to Be a Strategic Business Partner? Retrieved from yourbusiness.azcentral.com: https://yourbusiness.azcentral.com/important-hr-management-strategic-business-partner-3184.html

Ingram, D. (n.d.). Why Is it Important for HR Management to Transform From Administrative to Strategic Contributors? Retrieved from smallbusiness.chron.com: https://smallbusiness.chron.com/important-hr-management-transform-administrative-strategic-contributors-10236.html

Wilkie, D. (2015, June). Globalization Presents Complex Challenges for HR Managers. Retrieved from www.shrm.org: https://www.shrm.org/hr-today/news/hr-news/pages/globalization-presents-complex-challenges-for-hr-managers.aspx


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