Critical Thinking

No plagiarism will be checked with turnitin.

APA style, font 12, double spaced with headers.

Will need Title page, content 3 full double spaced  pages in length, plus Reference page. Total of 5 pages. Remember that discussion of each topic requires citations that are current

(less than 5 years old 2014-2018) and relevant.

This assignment is a formal paper. This includes: APA format, title page, headings, literature review, proper citation per APA, logical sequence, conclusions, clarity, understanding of the topic, and reference list.

The paper must demonstrate independent ideas and conclusions.  At a minimum, the following topics must be well articulated in the paper.

Please refer to the grading rubric for how your paper will be graded.

Please use headings while answering the questions below.  

  • 1. Explain how multidisciplinary collaboration can affect clinical decision making.
  • 2. Discuss how collaboration can lead to improved patient outcomes.
  • 3. Discuss how lack of collaboration can lead to poor patient outcomes.
  • 4. Identify three barriers to professional collaboration among healthcare professionals and patients?
  • 5. What are the five best ways to promote professional collaboration in pediatric primary care?
  • 6. How can the nurse practitioner encourage and support collaboration among the patient, family, caregivers, and healthcare professionals?

 

  • attachment

    MN580_Unit7_Assignment_Rubric.xlsx
 

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Google sites topped the 2012 U.S. unique web visitors list with 191.4 million visitors; while Facebook drew overall viewer engagement with 10.8 percent of online minutes spent. Google, Facebook, Yahoo, Microsoft, AOL, and Amazon were the top six sites on both these metrics during the 2012 year.34

watched 39.3 billion online videos during this same period. Video ad views totaled 13.2 billion.

Google sites topped the 2012 U.S. unique web visitors list with 191.4 million visitors; while Facebook drew overall viewer engagement with 10.8 percent of online minutes spent. Google, Facebook, Yahoo, Microsoft, AOL, and Amazon were the top six sites on both these metrics during the 2012 year.34

The ubiquity of ads on the Web continues to cause ethical problems, particularly for parents and those who wish to protect youth from a host of mobile media instant access via cell phones and pop-up ads, and exposure to web sites and advertisements dealing with sex, pornography, violence, drinking, and tobacco.

Pop-up and pop-under ads (ads that open up in a separate browser window) are used on some of the most visited web sites. In place of TV commercials that confront consumers with 30-second product introductions, the new “advertainment” shorts (also known as “commission content”) that pop up on different mobile devices present product or service information to the viewer through a story. For example, Madonna starred in a BMW-funded film directed by her husband. “You’re not using a product-based appeal, you’re using an image-based appeal.” It is important to mention that while stars such as Justin Bieber, Miley Cyrus, Lindsay Lohan, Lady Gaga, and Snooki draw attention to large numbers of virtual viewers in ads and infomercials, once their perceived and/or actual reputation is tainted, the attention can also turn.35

The Thin Line between Deceptive Advertising, Spyware, and Spam In addition to undesirable pop-up ads and other aggravating forced online advertising, is the more serious problem of Internet spyware and spam—which problems are now global because of the Internet. The U.S. House of Representatives Judiciary Committee passed the Internet Spyware Prevention Act of 2004, predicting that the problem of spyware would be solved. The act carries penalties of up to five years in prison for using spyware that leads to identity theft. The Department of Justice was given $10 million to find ways to fight spyware and phishing—the act of sending email to a user falsely claiming to be an established legitimate enterprise. There have been other bills introduced by Congress to curb spyware and related Internet crimes.

The debate continues over whether or not congressional legislation and laws can stop Internet spyware and spam. Critics of congressional action alone argue that both industries and government must work to end spam and spyware.36 Europe, also involved in solving cybercrime as well as daily scam-ming, takes a wider stakeholder involvement approach that includes legal enforcement and educating industry representatives and consumers. The European Cybercrime Convention, sponsored by the Council of Europe, provides a treaty for combating global cybercrime. The cybercrime convention was approved by 30 countries, including Canada, Japan, South Africa, and the United States, and has been ratified by eight countries.37 In December 2010, Canada’s government passed the Canadian Anti-Spam Law (CASL), designed to regulate specific areas of electronic commerce, including what are known as commercial electronic messages (CEMs). These encompass SMS messaging, social media messaging, and e-mail communications. Although the enforcement date has not yet been set,

Weiss, Joseph W.. <i>Business Ethics : A Stakeholder and Issues Management Approach</i>, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Incorporated, 2014. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/apus/detail.action?docID=1565988. Created from apus on 2019-06-15 17:18:23.

 

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You will prepare and submit a term paper on Human resources roles and responsibilities. Your paper should be a minimum of 500 words in length.

You will prepare and submit a term paper on Human resources roles and responsibilities. Your paper should be a minimum of 500 words in length. Order #:132390 Changing role of Human resource (HR) management in response to trends in globalization Due to globalization many companies are expanding their business abroad where they send their employees to work. In this respect it is the function of HRM to take responsibility of its workers abroad. HRM should select the best employees to take international assignments. HRM must be aware of the needs of families of those employees taking assignments abroad. Before departure the family should be oriented by training then foreign language and details such as of work visas, travel, and safety, household moving arrangement, taxes, family issues such as children’s schooling, medical care and housing should be given.

Changing role of (HR) in response to trends in diversity

HRM does not discriminate and hence it has brought people of different races together by accommodating diverse groups of people by addressing their different lifestyles, family needs and work styles. Mix of males and females, whites and peoples of color, homosexuals and straights, Hispanics, Asian, Americans the disabled and elderly predicts the exact composition of workforce diversity.

“Distinctive voices working together within a common culture” is one of the ways we have described how we do business at mars (Mars incorporated diversity philosophy). Due to diversity employers are adapting their human resource practices to reflect to changes. Bank of America has workforce diversity programmes. They hire, promote and retain minorities, encourage vendor diversity and provide diversity for employees.

Changing role in Human resource management in response to trends ethics

HRM has provided employee monitoring during work hours. This is enhanced so as to increase productivity although most employees view it as invasion of privacy. This mechanism is enhanced so that the managers are able to know about the employees and how they go in controlling their behavior while on job. For example most organizations require employees to wear badges while on company premises. These badges allow employees to enter certain locations and determine which department he / she belongs.

According to the mayor of Colorado Springs, Colorado, he reads electronic mail messages that city council members send to each other from their homes so that he can ensure that their email was not being used to circumvent states ‘open meeting’ law that requires most council business to be conducted publicly.

Changing role in Human resource (HR) management in response to trends E-Business

E – Business has changed the way human resources managers work. By linking computers, telephones, fax machines, printers, copiers, internet and the like, they disseminate information more quickly (David A. Decenzo& Stephen P. Robbins, 2005). E-Business has assisted managers by accessing information from any part of the works by a mouse click hence assisting them to facilitate Human resource Plans. It has also assisted in the recruiting and assigning services to employees on line, conducting research, sending email, electronic databases, training and network with colleagues. (Human resource management, L.L. Byars and L.W Rue, 2003)

Sources

1. Human resource journal, Institute of Personnel Management (Kenya) 1996.

2. HRM Guide globalization.www.hrmguide.co.uk.

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Part b in what proportions the genotypes will be found? enter your answers as fractions separated by commas.

Part b in what proportions the genotypes will be found? enter your answers as fractions separated by commas.

Part b in what proportions the genotypes will be found? enter your answers

 

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Americans, the problem is not just that they are consuming so much fat, it is that they don’t know what they are eating.

Americans, the problem is not just that they are consuming so much fat, it is that they don’t know what they are eating. While government standards for weight and other recommended health-related metrics change, the 2010 government-recommended daily caloric intake of adult men in the United States is between 2,000 and 3,000, depending on age and the level of physical activity; the recommended calories for adult women is 1,600–2,400, also depending on age and level of physical activity. This range is still current in 2014. Many Americans far exceed those recommendations, in part because of their increasing reliance on restaurant food.25

Advertising and Free Speech Because ads are often ambiguous, sometimes misleading, and can omit essential facts, the legal question of “free speech” enters more serious controversies. In commercial speech cases, there is no First Amendment protection if it can be proven that information was false or misleading. In other types of free speech cases, people who file suit must prove either negligence or actual malice.26

Should certain ads by corporations be banned or restricted by courts? For example, should children be protected from accessing pornography ads on the Internet? Should companies that intentionally mislead the public when selling their products be denied protection by the court? 27 The U.S. Supreme Court has differentiated commercial speech from pure speech in the context of the First Amendment. (See Central Hudson Gas and Electric Corporation v. Public Service Commission, 1980, and Posadas de Puerto Rico Associates v. Tourism Company of Puerto Rico, 54 LW 4960). Pure speech is more generalized, relating to political, scientific, and artistic expression in marketplace dealings. Commercial speech refers to language in ads and business dealings. The Supreme Court has balanced these concepts against the general principle that freedom of speech must be weighed against the public’s general welfare. The four-step test developed by Justice Lewis F. Powell Jr. and used to determine whether commercial speech in advertisements can be banned or restricted follows:

1. Is the ad accurate, and does it promote a lawful product? 2. Is the government’s interest in banning or restricting the commercial speech important, nontrivial, and substantial?

3. Does the proposed restriction of commercial speech assist the government in obtaining a public policy goal?

4. Is the proposed restriction of commercial speech limited only to achieving the government’s purpose?28

For example, do you agree or disagree with the conservative plurality on the Supreme Court that has argued in the tobacco smoking controversy to give more free speech rights to tobacco companies? This has been suggested by Lawrence Gostin: “The [Supreme] [C]ourt has held that the FDA lacks jurisdiction to regulate cigarettes. The court observed that Congress, despite having many opportunities, has repeatedly refused to permit agency regulation of the product. Thus, Congress has systematically declined to regulate tobacco but has also

Weiss, Joseph W.. <i>Business Ethics : A Stakeholder and Issues Management Approach</i>, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Incorporated, 2014. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/apus/detail.action?docID=1565988. Created from apus on 2019-06-15 17:18:23.

 

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Arguments for Advertising Arguments that justify advertising and the tactics of puffery and exaggeration include:

Arguments for Advertising Arguments that justify advertising and the tactics of puffery and exaggeration include:

1. Advertising introduces people to, and influences them to buy, goods and services. Without advertising, consumers would be uninformed about products.

2. Advertising enables companies to be competitive with other firms in domestic and international markets. Firms across the globe use advertisements as competitive weapons.

3. Advertising helps a nation maintain a prosperous economy. Advertising increases consumption and spending, which in turn creates economic growth and jobs, which in turn benefits all. “A rising tide lifts all ships.”

4. Advertising helps a nation’s balance of trade and debt payments, especially in large industries, such as the food, automobile, alcoholic beverage, and technology industries, whose exports help the country’s economy.

5. Customers’ lives are enriched by the images and metaphors advertising creates. Customers pay for the illusions as well as the products advertisements promote.

6. Consumers are not ignorant. Buyers know the differences between lying, manipulation, and colorful hyperbole aimed at attracting attention. Consumers have freedom of choice. Ads try to influence desires already present in people’s minds. Companies have a constitutional right to advertise in free and democratic societies.22

Arguments against (Questionable) Advertising Critics of questionable advertising practices argue that advertising can be harmful for the following reasons. First, advertisements often cross that thin line that exists between puffery and deception. For example, unsophisticated buyers, especially youth, are targeted by companies. David Kessler, former commissioner of the FDA, referred to smoking as a pediatric disease, since 90% of lifelong smokers started when they were 18 and half began by the age of 14.23

Another argument is that advertisements tell half-truths, conceal facts, and intentionally deceive with profit, not consumer welfare, in mind. For example, the $300—$400 billion food industry is increasingly being watched by the FDA for printing misleading labels that use terms such as “cholesterol free,” “lite,” and “all natural.” Consumers need understandable information quickly on how much fat (a significant factor in heart disease) is in food, on standard serving sizes, and on the exact nutritional contents of foods. This is increasingly relevant as food-marketing efforts increase. In 2010, for example, $1.24 trillion of food was supplied by food-service and food-retailing operations, which together make up the food- marketing system.24 At stake in the short term for food companies is an outlay of between $100 million and $600 million for relabeling. In the long term, product sales could be at risk.

One of the great paradoxes of Americans today is their obsession with diet and health, while having one of the worst diets in the world. Also noted earlier, more than two-thirds of adults and more than one-third of children in the United States are obese or overweight. Food industry executives say that customers ask for low-fat food but rarely buy it. For many

Weiss, Joseph W.. <i>Business Ethics : A Stakeholder and Issues Management Approach</i>, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Incorporated, 2014. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/apus/detail.action?docID=1565988. Created from apus on 2019-06-15 17:18:23.

 

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Sellers are responsible for claims they make about their products and services.

your ad specifies a certain level of support for a claim (e.g., “tests show X”), you must have at least that level of support.

Sellers are responsible for claims they make about their products and services. Third parties—such as advertising agencies or web site designers and catalog marketers—also may be liable for making or disseminating deceptive representations if they participate in the preparation or distribution of the advertising or know about the deceptive claims.21

Pros and Cons of Advertising Advertising is part of doing business, and not all advertising is deceptive or harmful to consumers. The arguments, both for and against advertising, raise awareness that provides information to both companies and consumers in their production and consumption of information and transactions. General ethical arguments for and against advertising are summarized below.

Ethical Insight 5.1

Signs of an Advance-Fee Loan Scam: “Red Flags” from the FTC

• A lender who isn’t interested in your credit history. A lender who doesn’t care about your credit record should give you cause for concern. Ads that say “Bad credit? No problem” or “We don’t care about your past. You deserve a loan” or “Get money fast,” or even “No hassle—guaranteed” often indicate a scam.

• Fees that are not disclosed clearly or prominently. Any up-front fee that the lender wants to collect before granting the loan is a cue to walk away, especially if you’re told it’s for “insurance,” “processing,” or just “paperwork.” Legitimate lenders often charge application, appraisal, or credit report fees. It’s also a warning sign if a lender says they won’t check your credit history, yet asks for your personal information, such as your Social Security number or bank account number.

• A loan that is offered by phone. It is illegal for companies doing business in the United States by phone to promise you a loan and ask you to pay for it before they deliver.

• A lender who uses a copy-cat or wannabe name. Crooks give their companies names that sound like well-known or respected organizations and create web sites that look slick.

• A lender who is not registered in your state. Lenders and loan brokers are required to register in the states where they do business. To check registration, call your state attorney general’s office or your state’s Department of Banking or Financial Regulation.

Source: Federal Trade Commission. (2012). Consumer Information, Advance-Fee Loans. http://www.consumer.ftc.gov/articles/0078-advance-fee-loans.

Weiss, Joseph W.. <i>Business Ethics : A Stakeholder and Issues Management Approach</i>, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Incorporated, 2014. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/apus/detail.action?docID=1565988. Created from apus on 2019-06-15 17:18:23.

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process, both buyer and seller are involved. As discussed earlier, “buyer beware” imparts some responsibility to the buyer for believing and being susceptible to ads

process, both buyer and seller are involved. As discussed earlier, “buyer beware” imparts some responsibility to the buyer for believing and being susceptible to ads. Ethical issues arise whenever corporations target ads in manipulative, untruthful, subliminal, and coercive ways to vulnerable buyers such as children and minorities. Also, inserting harmful chemicals into products without informing the buyer is deceptive advertising. The tobacco industry’s use of nicotine and addictive ingredients in cigarettes was deceptive advertising.

The American Association of Advertising (AAA) has a code of ethics that helps organizations monitor their ads. The code cautions against false, distorted, misleading, and exaggerated claims and statements, as well as pictures that are offensive to the public and minority groups. The following questions can be used by both advertising corporations and consumers to gauge the ethics of ads:

1. Is the consumer being treated as a means to an end or as an end? And what and whose end? 2. Whose rights are being protected or violated intentionally and inadvertently? And at what and whose costs?

3. Are consumers being justly and fairly treated? 4. Are the public welfare and the common good taken into consideration for the effects as well as the intention of advertisements?

5. Has anyone been or will anyone be harmed from using this product or service?

The Federal Trade Commission and Advertising The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and the Department of Labor (DOL) are the federal agencies in the United States appointed and funded to monitor and eliminate false and misleading advertising when corporate self-regulation is not used or fails. Following is a sample of the FTC’s guidelines:

The FTC Act allows the FTC to act in the interest of all consumers to prevent deceptive and unfair practices. In interpreting Section 5 of the act, the Commission has determined that a representation, omission or practice is deceptive if it is likely to:

• mislead consumers • affect consumers’ behavior or decisions about the product or service

In addition, an act or practice is unfair if the injury it causes, or is likely to cause, is:

• substantial • not outweighed by other benefits • reasonably avoidable

The FTC Act prohibits unfair or deceptive advertising in any medium. A claim can be misleading if relevant information is left out or if the claim implies something that’s not true. For example, a lease advertisement for an automobile that promotes “$0 Down” may be misleading if significant and undisclosed charges are due at lease signing. In addition, claims must be substantiated, especially when they concern health, safety, or performance. The type of evidence may depend on the product, the claims, and what experts believe is necessary. If

Weiss, Joseph W.. <i>Business Ethics : A Stakeholder and Issues Management Approach</i>, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Incorporated, 2014. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/apus/detail.action?docID=1565988. Created from apus on 2019-06-15 17:18:23.

 

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Sodium dodecyl sulfate (sds) and triton x-100 are both detergents that can be used to lyse cells. if the goal is to study the activity of membrane proteins after cell lysis, which would be a better ch

Sodium dodecyl sulfate (sds) and triton x-100 are both detergents that can be used to lyse cells. if the goal is to study the activity of membrane proteins after cell lysis, which would be a better ch

Sodium dodecyl sulfate (sds) and triton x-100 are both detergents that can be used to lyse cells. if the goal is to study the activity of membrane proteins after cell lysis, which would be a better choice

 

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European countries. The strategic vision of the EU consumer policy “aims to maximise consumer participation and trust in the market.

European countries. The strategic vision of the EU consumer policy “aims to maximise consumer participation and trust in the market. Built around four main objectives the European Consumer Agenda aims to increase confidence by: reinforcing consumer safety; enhancing knowledge; stepping up enforcement and securing redress; aligning consumer rights and policies to changes in society and in the economy.”19

5.2 Corporate Responsibility in Advertising Advertising is big business. Direct marketing advertising was 54.3% of the total advertising spending in 2009, while 2010 total direct marketing spending was estimated at $153.3 billion.20 Figure 5.1 shows ad dollars spent by the industry in 4th quarter 2012 over 2011, according to Nielsen.

The extent to which advertising is effective is debatable, but because consumers are so frequently exposed to ads, it is an important topic of study in business ethics. The purpose of advertising is to inform customers about products and services and to persuade them to purchase them. Deceptive advertising is against the law. A corporation’s ethical responsibility in advertising is to inform and persuade consumer stakeholders in ways that are not deceitful. This does not always happen, as the tobacco, diet, and fast food industries, for example, have shown.

Figure 5.1 Ad Dollars Spent by Selected Industry and Percentage Change Fourth Quarter 2012 over Fourth Quarter 2011

Source: Adapted from Nielsen. (March 14, 2013). U.S. ad spend increased 2% in 2012 on strong Q3. Nielsen.com. http://www.nielsen.com/us/en/newswire/2013/u-s–ad-spend-increased-2–in-2012-on-strong-3q.html.

Ethics and Advertising At issue, legally and ethically for consumers, is whether advertising is deceptive and creates or contributes to creating harm to consumers. Although advertising is supposed to provide information to consumers, a major aim is to sell products and services. As part of a selling

Weiss, Joseph W.. <i>Business Ethics : A Stakeholder and Issues Management Approach</i>, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Incorporated, 2014. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/apus/detail.action?docID=1565988. Created from apus on 2019-06-15 17:18:23.

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