Looking Over Two Offers

Looking Over Two Offers

After earning an MBA in May 2008, Rinaldi looked over the two job offers she received in July. The first was a somewhat surprising offer from Deep Dive. The CEO had taken a personal interest in Rinaldi and proposed that she lead a new “Special Projects” team in the marketing department where she would report directly to the vice president of marketing. Rinaldi would be asked to lead teams with members from across Deep Dive’s business units to take advantage of opportunities for growth. The second offer was from Potomac Waters as an assistant PM in their Health Drinks Division.

The two offers had very distinct pluses and minuses. While Deep Dive was a fun place to work, it had only one female manager (VP of Sales). The salary at Deep Dive was more attractive than the one offered at Potomac (a $15,000 difference), but Deep Dive was still an entrepreneurial firm and its future seemed very much dependent on successful rapid expansion. Although Martha liked the idea of taking on this responsibility, she wondered if she would get better training in marketing from a bigger company with a better reputation. She also did not know Deep Dive’s VP of marketing and was unsure of what their relationship would be. And with the recent economic crisis, Martha learned that consumers would probably cut back on eating out, opting instead for the cheaper and potentially healthier option of eating at home while saving on money that would be spent on gas and transportation. Potomac Waters was a much larger and better established firm with a national presence and headquarted in a warmer city—Washington, D.C. (Potomac’s market share in its product categories on the East and West Coasts had grown an average of 2% annually in the previous

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2 BRIEFCASES | HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL

three years. It was also expanding to the Midwest, where Martha had noticed Potomac entering into the Chicago market.)

Marketing was important in the restaurant industry, but it was central to success in the beverage industry. It was especially important now at Potomac, which was making a push for national brand recognition during a time of international economic crisis. Luckily for Potomac, the $40 billion U.S. beverage industry, like most consumer staples, had not done as badly as many other sectors of the economy in the “Great Recession” and was expected to rebound to its normally modest, but reliable, rates of growth. As Martha learned while researching her job offers, Potomac was a privately held company whose owners believed there was an opportunity to take a significant market share away from traditional beverage companies because of growing consumer interest in non-carbonated and private-label beverages. From its recent entrances in new markets, it seemed that Potomac was cherry-picking the regions of high-growth in the U.S. beverage market. Two of their three divisions, Health Drinks and Sports Drinks—were expected to spearhead that growth (maintained by the consumers’ steady interest in trends centering on healthy living). Revenues from the third and oldest division—Carbonated Soft Drinks—were expected to remain steady. Although hopes were high for the company, the hard economic times for the country (with many experienced marketers from other industries looking for work) combined with the endemic competitiveness in the beverage industry meant that a marketing job at Potomac would always be fast-paced and demanding.

 

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Martha Rinaldi: Should She Stay or Should She Go?

Martha Rinaldi: Should She Stay or Should She Go?

The holidays were over and it was the beginning of a new year, January 2009. Martha Rinaldi had not yet made a decision about what she should do: stay in her current position at Potomac Waters; ask to be reassigned to a different brand; or, accept a standing offer at Deep Dive Pizza, where she had interned the previous summer. Things were certainly not going as she had hoped upon arriving at Potomac Waters as an assistant product manager (PM) in the Health Drinks Division. For the past four months she had been working on Invi, a new brand of fruit health drinks.

She gazed at the adjacent desk of her colleague, Jamie Vaughan, and wondered whether she could continue working with him and whether Natalie Follet (her manager) would be able to help her develop her marketing skills. An associate PM, Vaughan had been working at this position since February of 2008. Relations had been tense with Vaughan from the first day. He had started without formal training in marketing, as he proudly told her many times, and often voiced his resentment of “know-it-all” young MBAs. Both Vaughan and Rinaldi reported to Natalie Follet, also a company veteran and only the second female PM in the Health Drinks Division of Potomac Waters. Having worked half-time at home for six months for personal reasons, Follet communicated mainly through email. Recently, in a rare, in-person meeting, Follet criticized Rinaldi for lacking initiative. Follet would be back working full-time at the office soon. (See Exhibit 1 for short biographies of Vaughan, Rinaldi, and Follet.)

Despite her short time at Potomac, Rinaldi had already lived through a few tense and sometimes vocal exchanges with Vaughan and Follet. Making matters worse, many of her tasks on the job had been menial (copying, fixing powerpoints, etc.). She wondered if she had a career at Potomac.

Background

Rinaldi was the third in a family of four daughters raised in Iowa City. All the sisters liked sports. Martha enjoyed soccer in particular and excelled at the midfield position. She also liked helping her father do the bookkeeping for his hardware store and maintaining the store’s web site. After high school, she completed an undergraduate degree in computer science.

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

HBS Professor Linda A. Hill and writer Mark Rennella prepared this case solely as a basis for class discussion and not as an endorsement, a source of primary data, or an illustration of effective or ineffective management. This case, though based on real events, is fictionalized, and any resemblance to actual persons or entities is coincidental. There are occasional references to actual companies in the narration.

Copyright © 2011 President and Fellows of Harvard College. To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, call 1-800-545-7685, write Harvard Business Publishing, Boston, MA 02163, or go to http://www.hbsp.harvard.edu. This publication may not be digitized, photocopied, or otherwise reproduced, posted, or transmitted, without the permission of Harvard Business School.

4310

AUGUST 24, 2011

4310 Martha Rinaldi: Should She Stay or Should She Go?

A year after graduating from University of Iowa, Martha began an MBA at a top-10 business school located in a suburb of Chicago with strengths in marketing and management information systems. Although Rinaldi had intended to focus on IT, her exposure to the faculty at her MBA program inspired her to switch to marketing. After completing the first year of study at her two-year MBA program, Rinaldi landed a summer position as an assistant to the Director of Promotions at Deep Dive Pizza, a regional restaurant chain headquartered in Chicago. In the highly fragmented restaurant industry, the Deep Dive chain found some local notoriety though flashy advertising featuring new products, including the “pizza of the week” as well as other meal items that were relatively easy to mass produce, such as desserts and specialty drinks. Through combining the casual atmosphere of a full-service family dining restaurant with regular changes in menu selections that were more typical of high-end restaurants, Deep Dive became a hit. The only drawback of this strategy was that its complex execution posed a great challenge, especially as the model was introduced into neighboring regions unfamiliar with Deep Dive’s approach.

Lean and mean, Deep Dive prided itself at being careful with costs so it could lavish attention on the customer. Martha’s supervisor often said, “The office isn’t luxurious, but it’s never dull here!” Martha contributed some great ideas about educating new franchise owners about the core elements of the Deep Dive brand and was also able to build bridges with new suppliers who had to adjust to Deep Dive’s frequent new-product development. Toward the end of her internship, she also applied her background in computer science in creating a persuasive presentation on the return on investment on some potential major investments in computerized information systems. These successes caught the attention of the CEO. Upon the end of her internship, Martha’s boss took the unusual step of setting up a celebratory goodbye party, inviting the three members of the pricing and promotions team he managed to Deep Dive’s signature restaurant in downtown Chicago. As the team dug into the enormous “Fun Sundae” ice-cream dessert, Martha’s boss reminded Rinaldi of what he had said the week before: a job offer with the promotions team was waiting for her next summer

 

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Research Lab Paper Radiology topic

Bio 210

Lab Paper Instructions

Pick a relevant topic related to class (it can be anything, as long as it’s relevant), and write a research paper summarizing different journal articles about your topic. Journal articles are short papers written about experiments that have been peer-reviewed and published. These articles describe an original experiment or analysis that adds to current knowledge about a particular topic. In your paper, you should discuss: the reasons the experiment was performed, the methodology, data, results, and the authors’ discussion. Due by April 20th, 2017. 

Requirements:

-A minimumof 1500 words.

-1.5 line spacing.

-Proper Works Cited and in-text citations (or else you are plagiarizing and I cannot accept your paper).

-Reference at least journal articles.

-Include graphs/figures/diagrams from the original papers to help illustrate your points.

-Your paper should include an introduction to your topic, a summary of different articles, and a conclusion.

Tips:

-Use correct citations; http://www.easybib.com/

-Google Scholar is a great source for journal articles (among others, don’t use Wikipedia as a real source).

-Journal articles are typically very specific. It is a good idea to choose a topic that is very researchable—not too broad, not too exclusive.

-A few interesting topics to help you brainstorm: effects of exercise on endothelial dysfunction, anabolic steroid use effects, bradycardia in athletes, strength and endurance training in the elderly (or aging), the effects of nutrition on muscle hypertrophy, the effects of a low carb diet in type 2 diabetes, low carb vs low fat diets for weight loss, effects of meditation on anxiety disorders, the role of Vitamin D in metabolic syndrome.

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Assignment of conservtion biology AM

I would like you to do tow research papers (8 pages for each topic with including the reference pages, but without the first page which contains the name ).the first research paper is about (Wood Stork), and the other one about( Bald Eagle).

I want one page or so will discuss a description for both topics (Wood Stork)/ (Bald Eagle)

I would like to be in (general biology&ecology) such as:

·         Thier  Habitat and where it is found

·         What it eats and diet

·         How it lives, in groups or individual

The majority of the paper will deal with its status, the reasons why it is endangered, and management strategies.

Research Project Guidelines

1.    Keep the paper short (between 1200 and 1800 words)

2.    Use at least six sources, no more than one of which may be a web page.  If you use a web page, it must be from a government agency, a university, or another “authoritative” source.  An “edu” or “org” and No Wikipedia, etc.

3.    Employ the citation style of the Council of Science Editors

4.    Do not employ direct quotes

5.    DO NOT PLAGIARIZE. please make sure there is no plagiarism for both topics.

6.    Cited  or reference section which will be in a separate page

APA style.

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Assignment of conservtion biology AM

I would like you to do tow research papers (8 pages for each topic with including the reference pages, but without the first page which contains the name ).the first research paper is about (Wood Stork), and the other one about( Bald Eagle).

I want one page or so will discuss a description for both topics (Wood Stork)/ (Bald Eagle)

I would like to be in (general biology&ecology) such as:

·         Thier  Habitat and where it is found

·         What it eats and diet

·         How it lives, in groups or individual

The majority of the paper will deal with its status, the reasons why it is endangered, and management strategies.

Research Project Guidelines

1.    Keep the paper short (between 1200 and 1800 words)

2.    Use at least six sources, no more than one of which may be a web page.  If you use a web page, it must be from a government agency, a university, or another “authoritative” source.  An “edu” or “org” and No Wikipedia, etc.

3.    Employ the citation style of the Council of Science Editors

4.    Do not employ direct quotes

5.    DO NOT PLAGIARIZE. please make sure there is no plagiarism for both topics.

6.    Cited  or reference section which will be in a separate page

APA style.

Show more 

 

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You have been assigned an Ivey Cases that involve some element of human resources issue

Exam 1: Case Study Analysis

You have been assigned an Ivey Cases that involve some element of human resources issues.  Questions for which you need to incorporate the answers into your overall analysis are located in a Google Document –

Prepare a written analysis that includes the following components:

The Report Format

1. Executive Summary

2. Report Main Body

· Statement of the Problem & Solution

· Brief History of the Case/Issues

· Industry Analysis (if applicable)

· Company Analysis

· List of Critical Factors

· Definition of Alternatives (if applicable)

· Implementation / Next Steps

· Conclusion

· Additional Comments

· References

· Appendices (tables and exhibits as appropriate)

Analysis should be 5-7 pages full pages (double-spaced, once inch margins, 11 pint type).

Submit a .pdf version of your written analysis in Canvas

Exam 1: Case Study Analysis

You have been assigned an Ivey Cases that involve some element of human resources issues.  Questions for which you need to incorporate the answers into your overall analysis are located in a Google Document –

Prepare a written analysis that includes the following components:

The Report Format

1. Executive Summary

2. Report Main Body

· Statement of the Problem & Solution

· Brief History of the Case/Issues

· Industry Analysis (if applicable)

· Company Analysis

· List of Critical Factors

· Definition of Alternatives (if applicable)

· Implementation / Next Steps

· Conclusion

· Additional Comments

· References

· Appendices (tables and exhibits as appropriate)

Analysis should be 5-7 pages full pages (double-spaced, once inch margins, 11 pint type).

Submit a .pdf version of your written analysis in Canvas

Exam 1: Case Study Analysis

You have been assigned an Ivey Cases that involve some element of human resources issues.  Questions for which you need to incorporate the answers into your overall analysis are located in a Google Document –

Prepare a written analysis that includes the following components:

The Report Format

1. Executive Summary

2. Report Main Body

· Statement of the Problem & Solution

· Brief History of the Case/Issues

· Industry Analysis (if applicable)

· Company Analysis

· List of Critical Factors

· Definition of Alternatives (if applicable)

· Implementation / Next Steps

· Conclusion

· Additional Comments

· References

· Appendices (tables and exhibits as appropriate)

Analysis should be 5-7 pages full pages (double-spaced, once inch margins, 11 pint type).

Submit a .pdf version of your written analysis in Canvas

 

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sci228 week 6 quiz 2017 (All Correct)

QuestionQuestion 1.1. (TCO 1) Chemicals that control hunger, appetite, and digestion include all of the following EXCEPT: (Points : 2)dopamine.serotonin.pepsin.ghrelin.Question 2.2. (TCO 2) Consuming an excess of _______ calories in one week will result in a weight gain of one pound per week. (Points : 2)2,5003,5003,0002,000Question 3.3. (TCO 3) Which of the following BEST describes exercise? (Points : 2)Any movement produced by muscles that increases energy expenditureMaximal force or tension level that can be produced by a muscle groupLeisure physical activity that is purposeful, planned, and structuredAbility to move a joint fluidly through the complete range of motionQuestion 4.4. (TCO 4) Which of the following is not one of the physiological effects of regular physical activity? (Points : 2)Decreases the action of insulinEnhances gastric motilityMaintains and/or increases lean body massIncreases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL)Question 5.5. (TCO 5) What are the standard criteria used for diagnosing an eating disorder? (Points : 2)Analysis of atypical food behaviorDisordered eating questionnaireBehavioral Risk Factor Surveillance SystemDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersQuestion 6.6. (TCO 6) What is meant by the notion that eating behaviors are conditioned? (Points : 2)Eating habits affect our moods.Previous experiences, such as those that occur during childhood, affect our current responses to food and eating behaviors.Food consumption only occurs in response to external stimuli.The intensity and duration of physical activity impacts our response to food and eating habits.Question 7.7. (TCO 7) Which of the following BEST describes why the body reduces nonvital body functions in untreated anorexia nervosa? (Points : 2)There is insufficient estrogen to regulate these functions.The body is trying to maintain normal body temperature.The body needs to conserve energy.The individual’s activity level is very low.Question 8.8. (TCO 8) What percentage of U.S. women have bulimia nervosa? (Points : 2)1-4%5-7%7-12%15-20%Question 9.9. (TCO 9) For most adults, it is difficult to get adequate nutrients if eating less than ________ kcals a day. (Points : 2)1,000-1,2001,200-1,5001,600-1,8001,800-2,000Question 10.10. (TCO 10) Currently, the best known treatment of eating disorders is: (Points : 2)a team-management approach.psychotropic medications.IV therapy.a high-calorie, high-protein diet.

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NEED HELP WITH BIO QUIZ. A EXPERT ONLY (I DON’T WANT I M.I.G.H.T ABLE TO HANDLE TUTORS)

I have an online Biology quiz that I need help on preferably with a screen share around 7pm from now.

Time limit: 1 hour and 5 min

It will be about 39 questions

ONLY BIO EXPERT & WANT QUICK RESPONSE. NO PAUSING OR SLACKING OFF DURING THE QUIZ.

Quiz will cover

Energy – Photosynthesis (Light-dependent Reactions), Photosynthesis (Calvin Cycle)

Plants – Evolution and Diversity, Vascular Non-flowering Plants, Vascular Flowering Plants Mendel and Modern Genetics

Example questions (not a real one)

For all of the characters that Mendel observed, when two plants from true-breeding lines for two different traits were crossed, one of the traits disappeared in the F1 generation, then reappeared in the F2 generation. This is because all of these characters showed

1. dominance 2. complete codominance 3. incomplete dominance. 4. polygenic inheritance.

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 Examples of eParticipation Applications

 Examples of eParticipation Applications

These tools of eParticipation represent the architecture for real-time simulation ex- ercises. An example is the EU’s ‘Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) or ICT Challenge 7 in support of governance and policy modelling http://cordis.europa.eu. Other examples include simulation exercises like the US Army War College ‘Uni- fied Quested’ earlier cited, which employ the use of tools and processes similar to requirements for the Crisis Simulation Games of the NIPSS leadership training mod- ule. This aspect of eParticipation within the NIPSS Crisis Game component signifies the application of principles and practices of eParticipation in simulation exercise in leadership training in Nigeria. In theoretical sense, therefore, such processes also deal with how ways of doing things affect the way they are done, as seen in the NIPSS Crisis Game.

19.6 Leadership Training in Nigeria at the NIPSS

19.6.1 The NIPSS

The NIPSS is the premier leadership training institution in Nigeria with dual mandate of policy research and training of senior executives. It was born out of the need to improve government service delivery, or public administration. Its emergence as a government ‘think tank’ was also associated with the need to coordinate the ever-increasing complexity in government activities (Eleazu 1978, pp. 5–7).

The Institute conducts policy research for government and trains senior executives in policymaking and implementation skills. It serves as a centre where representa- tives from all walks of the Nigerian national life could come together. Its activities include research, lectures, workshops, seminars and other action-oriented courses, studies and conferences, to analyse and exchange views on long-term national goals. Its aims and objectives include the conduct of courses for top-level policymakers and executors; and research into social, cultural, economic, political, scientific, techno- logical, security and other problems for their solutions. Additionally, the Institute conducts seminars, workshops and other action-oriented programmes for leaders and potential leaders.

Participants going to NIPSS include professionals at the apex of their various careers spread across public and private sector. For example, the NIPSS senior ex- ecutive course No. 33 of 2011 consisted of 65 participants drawn from the military, security agencies, diplomats, federal and states civil service, academia, trade unions, associations, professional bodies and the organized private sector. The participants were subjected to rigours of leadership training module on strategic studies, pol- icy analysis, public administration, fieldwork and crowned with a Crisis Simulation Game.

19 eParticipation, Simulation Exercise and Leadership Training in Nigeria 427

19.6.2 The NIPSS Crisis Simulation Game

The NIPSS Crisis Simulation Game is conducted by an expert as convener and assisted by a Planning and Monitoring Committee supported by a logistics secretariat. The game is not a drama, so no script is necessary, but players are briefed on a theme, rules, roles and units’ allocation and scenario. Participants are encouraged to show commitment and dedication in making the event as real as possible. To accomplish all these, both organizers and players are encouraged to employ equipment, particularly electronic gadgets for enhancement of performance.

At its initial stages, the NIPSS Crisis Game was supported with primary electron- ics like microphones, cameras, television sets, recorders, video players and public address systems. The trend in electronic advancement and easier access to services and processes brought in new equipment like mobile or smart phones, computer platforms, social media and the Internet capable of enhancing eParticipation. An assessment of the NIPSS Crisis Game 2011 on application of principles and practice of eParticipation would determine its level on the global digital divide architecture and the way to bridge it.

19.6.3 An Assessment

Computer literacy and skills, the knowledge and ability to utilize computers and re- lated technology efficiently, are critical to eParticipation application. Calfee (1982) describes computer literacy as the starting point for knowledge required for partic- ipation in the computer age or eParticipation. The global digital divide architecture portrays developed countries with higher and more advanced computer literacy than developing countries. It is on this basis that the application of eParticipation prin- ciples and practice in bottom-up structure, as seen in the NIPSS Crisis Game, is assessed.

Equipment and applications used in the NIPSS Crisis Game are inferior to the more advanced Web 2.0 employed in similar exercises in developed Europe and America. The US Army War College ‘Unified Quest’ game, for example, employs the best, highest and most efficient means for achieving desired effect (Gardner 2008). Also, in a Focused Group interview with the NIPSS ICT Unit the following facts were revealed:

a. Course participants and staff were excited with the roles, tempo, and process of the game, but lack computer skills;

b. The game could have been better if adequate equipment and practices are provided;

c. No deliberate effort was made to provide higher equipment and special skills for upgrading of the Crisis Game programme;

d. Those in charge of budgeting do not take computerization of the institute very critical; and

428 T. Ahmed

e. The use of individual initiatives for use of smart phones, data mining software, and new methods were not logically pursued.

The above predicaments were compounded by low computer literacy of 50 % amongst both participants and staff of NIPSS, likened to an impasse of a catch- 22 circumstance. This outcome, emanating from the lower skills of both the players and organizers, add up to amplify the gap in digital divide from the bottom level of the Institute.

19.6.4 Findings

Major findings associated with the above assessment indicate the manifestation of the structuration, institutional and actor-network theories used in the work, as follows:

a. That a gap has been established as proof of global digital divide architecture and the existence of a ‘break point’ or threshold from which efforts on bridging can be implemented. It proves that human activity and larger structure relate with each other in such a way that structures are produced or altered by new ways and means, reflecting the tenets of the structuration theory;

b. The NIPSS staff and course participants are willing and eager to improve epartic- ipate in the Crisis Game process by diffusion of innovative structures and relevant environmental influence seen in the assumptions of institutional theory; and

c. However, lost opportunities for bridging the digital divide were at the same time incurred due to lack of initiative and willingness to change, on the side of the conveners of the NIPSS Crisis Game. This exhibits weakness in network of relationships associated with the actor-network theory.

19.7 Conclusion

This chapter sets out to discuss the application of eParticipation principles and practice to simulation exercise in leadership training in Nigeria. It conceptualized associated key terms, explained and utilized relevant theories, applied principles and explained practices of eParticipation. It analysed the NIPSS Crisis Game for leadership training in Nigeria and outlined some challenges and opportunities. The digital divide remains formidable in scaling ICT-enabled opportunities for effective leadership and development in countries lagging behind. In a diverse and divided country like Nigeria, leadership and development challenges often hinge on effective coordination, beneficial of eParticipation principles and practice.

This chapter also discusses the application of eParticipation principles and practice in ‘simulation exercise’ for ‘leadership training’ in Nigeria. The ‘Crisis Game’, a simulation exercise of the NIPSS is treated as case study with the theme of ‘political zoning’. The chapter employs three major theories of structuration, institutional and

19 eParticipation, Simulation Exercise and Leadership Training in Nigeria 429

actor-network to ascertain the significance of eParticipation for leadership capacity building. Its findings include low level and inadequate utilization of ICT equipment and processes for eParticipation at highest level of leadership training in Nigeria.

What appeared to be like a local ‘sink hole’ in loss of opportunity for ePartici- pation application in the NIPSS Crisis Simulation Game may be the nucleus of a ‘black hole’ in global context. The work concludes that the opportunities in ePar- ticipation, eGovernment and eDemocracy can expand e-applications from local to global spheres. In these ways and means, the bridging of the gap in digital divide, is feasible and will make the entire world a better place. That is, the bridging of digital divide requires deliberate, but systemic eParticipation at the lowest point for behind every technology is somebody who is using it and this somebody is a society.

For these to be achieved, the following recommendations are proffered:

a. eParticipation should be made accessible by global centres of activities in more developed countries, to enhance vertical and horizontal coverage across the world;

b. Local efforts in eGovernance should be intensified by less developed countries through basic and systematic eParticipation at individual, local, national, regional and global levels;

c. Individual citizens, particularly government officials, should be encouraged and provided with eParticipation skills for improved performance and general betterment of society;

d. Domestication and enactment of legislations and conventions on eParticipation, eGovernance and eDemocracy would enhance efforts at local, national, regional and global levels; and

e. The UN, the African Union, the ECOWAS, and other global efforts like the eGovPoliNet should continue to be involved in the promotion of eParticipation at the grassroots.

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  • Preface
  • Contents
  • Contributors
  • Chapter 1 Introduction to Policy-Making in the Digital Age
    • 1.1 Introduction
    • 1.2 Complexity and Uncertainty in Policy-Making
    • 1.3 Developments
      • 1.3.1 The Availability of Big and Open Linked Data (BOLD)
      • 1.3.2 Rise of Hybrid Simulation Approaches
      • 1.3.3 Ubiquitous User Engagement
    • 1.4 Combining Disciplines in E-government Policy-Making
    • 1.5 Overview of Chapters
    • 1.6 Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 2 Educating Public Managers and Policy Analysts in an Era of Informatics
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 Two Types of Practitioner Orientations to Policy Informatics
      • 2.2.1 Policy Informatics-Savvy Public Managers
      • 2.2.2 Policy Informatics Analysts
    • 2.3 Applications to Professional Masters Programs
    • 2.4 PA 301: Foundations of Public Administration
    • 2.5 PA 306: Policy Systems
    • 2.6 PA 308: Decision-Making Models
    • 2.7 PA 317: Systems Analysis and Strategic Management
    • 2.8 Conclusion
    • 2.9 Appendix A: University of Vermont’s MPA Program Learning Competencies and Capacities
    • References
  • Chapter 3 The Quality of Social Simulation: An Example from Research Policy Modelling
    • 3.1 Quality in Social Simulation
      • 3.1.1 The Standard View
        • 3.1.1.1 The Problem of Under-determination
        • 3.1.1.2 The Theory-Ladenness of Observations
      • 3.1.2 The Constructivist View
      • 3.1.3 The User Community View
    • 3.2 An Example of Assessing Quality
      • 3.2.1 A Policy-Modelling Application of SKIN
        • 3.2.1.1 Policy Modelling for Ex-ante Evaluation of EU Funding Programmes
        • 3.2.1.2 The Data-to-Model Workflow
      • 3.2.2 The INFSO-SKIN Example as Seen by the Standard View
      • 3.2.3 The INFSO-SKIN Example as Seen by the Constructivist View
      • 3.2.4 The INFSO-SKIN Example as Seen by the User Community View
        • 3.2.4.1 Identifying User Questions
        • 3.2.4.2 Getting Their Best: Users Need to Provide Data
        • 3.2.4.3 Interacting with Users to Check the Validity of Simulation Results
    • 3.3 Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 4 Policy Making and Modelling in a Complex World
    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 What is Complexity?
    • 4.3 Two Common Mistakes in Managing Complex Systems
    • 4.4 Complexity and Policy Making
      • 4.4.1 Using Formal Models in Policy Making
      • 4.4.2 The Use of Agent-Based Models to Aid Policy Formation
    • 4.5 Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 5 From Building a Model to Adaptive Robust Decision Making Using Systems Modeling
    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 System Dynamics Modeling and Simulation of Old
    • 5.3 Recent Innovations and Expected Evolutions
      • 5.3.1 Recent and Current Innovations
      • 5.3.2 Current and Expected Evolutions
    • 5.4 Future State of Practice of Systems Modeling and Simulation
    • 5.5 Examples
      • 5.5.1 Assessing the Risk, and Monitoring, of New Infectious Diseases
      • 5.5.2 Integrated Risk-Capability Analysis under Deep Uncertainty
      • 5.5.3 Policing Under Deep Uncertainty
    • 5.6 Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 6 Features and Added Value of Simulation Models Using Different Modelling Approaches Supporting Policy-Making: A Comparative Analysis
    • 6.1 Introduction
    • 6.2 Foundations of Simulation Modelling
    • 6.3 Analysis of Simulation Models of Different Modelling Approaches
      • 6.3.1 VirSim—A Model to Support Pandemic Policy-Making
      • 6.3.2 MicroSim—Micro-simulation Model: Modelling the Swedish Population
      • 6.3.3 MEL-C—Modelling the Early Life-Course
      • 6.3.4 Ocopomo’s Kosice Case
      • 6.3.5 SKIN—Simulating Knowledge Dynamics in Innovation Networks
    • 6.4 Comparison of Simulation Models and Discussion of Added Value and Limitations of Particular Simulation Models
    • 6.5 Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 7 A Comparative Analysis of Tools and Technologies for Policy Making
    • 7.1 Introduction
    • 7.2 Methodology
    • 7.3 Tools and Technologies for Policy Making
      • 7.3.1 Visualisation Tools
      • 7.3.2 Argumentation Tools
      • 7.3.3 eParticipation Tools
      • 7.3.4 Opinion Mining Tools
      • 7.3.5 Simulation Tools
      • 7.3.6 Serious Games
      • 7.3.7 Tools Specifically Developed for Policy Makers
      • 7.3.8 Persuasive Tools
      • 7.3.9 Social Network Analysis Tools
      • 7.3.10 Big Data Analytics Tools
      • 7.3.11 Semantics and Linked Data Tools
    • 7.4 Summary and Discussion
    • Appendix
      • Visualisation Tools
      • Argumentation Tools
      • eParticipation Tools
      • Opinion Mining Tools
      • Agent-Based Modelling and Simulation Tools
      • Serious Games
      • Policy-Making Tools
      • Semantics and Linked Data Tools
    • References
  • Chapter 8 Value Sensitive Design of Complex Product Systems
    • 8.1 Complex Technology
    • 8.2 Smart Meters in the Netherlands
    • 8.3 Smart Meters as Complex Product Systems
      • 8.3.1 Competing Standards
      • 8.3.2 Actor or Stakeholder Analysis
      • 8.3.3 Networks of Stakeholders
    • 8.4 Values in the Design of Technical Artefacts
      • 8.4.1 Value-Sensitive Design
      • 8.4.2 Values in Our Research
    • 8.5 Discussion
      • 8.5.1 From Values to Design Requirements
      • 8.5.2 Values Salience
      • 8.5.3 Multidisciplinary Approach
    • 8.6 Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 9 Stakeholder Engagement in Policy Development: Observations and Lessons from International Experience
    • 9.1 Introduction
    • 9.2 Foundations of Stakeholder Engagement
      • 9.2.1 Defining Stakeholders
      • 9.2.2 Stakeholder Identification and Analysis
      • 9.2.3 Stakeholder Engagement
    • 9.3 Cases
      • 9.3.1 E-Government Strategic Planning in Afghanistan
      • 9.3.2 Renewable Energy Policy for Kosice, Slovakia
      • 9.3.3 Redesigning the European Union’s Inspection Capability for International Trade
      • 9.3.4 Understanding Child Health Outcomes in New Zealand
      • 9.3.5 Transportation and Urban Planning Indicator Development in the USA
    • 9.4 Case Comparison
    • 9.5 Discussion
    • 9.6 Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 10 Values in Computational Models Revalued
    • 10.1 Introduction
    • 10.2 Technological Perceptions: The Debate
    • 10.3 Technology and Public Decision Making
    • 10.4 Methodology
    • 10.5 Case Studies
    • 10.6 Analysis
    • 10.7 Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 11 The Psychological Drivers of Bureaucracy: Protecting the Societal Goals of an Organization
    • 11.1 Introduction
    • 11.2 Characteristics of Bureaucracy
    • 11.3 Psychological Roots of Bureaucracy
      • 11.3.1 Habits
      • 11.3.2 Two Modes of Thought
      • 11.3.3 Authoritarianism
      • 11.3.4 Two Attitudes Toward a Complex World
      • 11.3.5 The Authoritarian Dynamic
      • 11.3.6 The Bureaucratic Dynamic
      • 11.3.7 The Psychological Effects on the Bureaucrat
      • 11.3.8 Summary of the Psychological Roots of Bureaucracy
    • 11.4 Protecting the Societal Goals of an Organization
      • 11.4.1 Management Paradigms for Nonprofits
        • 11.4.1.1 Traditional Public Management
        • 11.4.1.2 New Public Management
        • 11.4.1.3 Public Value Management
        • 11.4.1.4 Summarizing Key Properties of the Three Management Paradigms
      • 11.4.2 Libertarian Organizations
      • 11.4.3 The Dynamics of Encroaching Bureaucracy
      • 11.4.4 Preventing Bureaucracy
      • 11.4.5 Conclusion and Reflection
    • Appendix
    • References
  • Chapter 12 Active and Passive Crowdsourcing in Government
    • 12.1 Introduction
    • 12.2 Background
      • 12.2.1 Crowdsourcing
      • 12.2.2 Public Sector Application
    • 12.3 Research Method
      • 12.3.1 Active Crowdsourcing
      • 12.3.2 Passive Crowdsourcing
    • 12.4 An Active Crowdsourcing Approach
      • 12.4.1 Description
      • 12.4.2 ICT Infrastructure
      • 12.4.3 Application Process Model
    • 12.5 A Passive Crowdsourcing Approach
      • 12.5.1 Description
      • 12.5.2 Application Process Model
      • 12.5.3 ICT Infrastructure
    • 12.6 Comparisons
    • 12.7 Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 13 Management of Complex Systems: Toward Agent-Based Gaming for Policy
    • 13.1 Introduction
    • 13.2 Simulating Social Complex Phenomena
    • 13.3 Managing Social Complex Phenomena
    • 13.4 Leadership and Management in Complex Systems
    • 13.5 Serious Gaming
    • 13.6 Agent-Based Games for Testing Leadership and Management
    • 13.7 Single and Multiplayer Settings
    • 13.8 Experimentation with Management
    • 13.9 Conclusions and Discussion
    • References
  • Chapter 14 The Role of Microsimulation in the Development of Public Policy
    • 14.1 Introduction
    • 14.2 A Brief History
    • 14.3 What Is Microsimulation?
    • 14.4 Types of Microsimulation
    • 14.5 The Process of Microsimulation
    • 14.6 Is Microsimulation Useful for Policy Development?
    • 14.7 Strengths and Weaknesses
    • 14.8 A Case Study: Modelling the Early Life Course
      • 14.8.1 Aim
      • 14.8.2 Methods
      • 14.8.3 Implementing the Simulation
      • 14.8.4 Scenario Testing
    • 14.9 Conclusion
    • Appendix
    • References
  • Chapter 15 Visual Decision Support for Policy Making: Advancing Policy Analysis with Visualization
    • 15.1 Introduction
    • 15.2 Background
      • 15.2.1 Information Visualization and Visual Analytics
      • 15.2.2 Policy Analysis
    • 15.3 Approach
      • 15.3.1 Characterization of Stakeholders
      • 15.3.2 Bridging Knowledge Gaps with Information Visualization
      • 15.3.3 Synergy Effects of Applying Information Visualization to Policy Analysis
    • 15.4 Case Studies
      • 15.4.1 Optimization
        • 15.4.1.1 Involved Stakeholders
        • 15.4.1.2 Underlying Technologies
        • 15.4.1.3 Visual Design
        • 15.4.1.4 Findings
      • 15.4.2 Social Simulation
        • 15.4.2.1 Stakeholders
        • 15.4.2.2 Underlying Technologies
        • 15.4.2.3 Visual Design
        • 15.4.2.4 Findings
      • 15.4.3 Urban Planning
        • 15.4.3.1 Involved Stakeholders
        • 15.4.3.2 Underlying Techniques
        • 15.4.3.3 Visual Design
        • 15.4.3.4 Findings
      • 15.4.4 Summary of Case Studies
    • 15.5 Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 16 Analysis of Five Policy Cases in the Field of Energy Policy
    • 16.1 Introduction
    • 16.2 Theoretical Grounds of Policy Implementation
      • 16.2.1 Instruments for Climate Change Policy
      • 16.2.2 Policy Instruments for Renewable Energy
    • 16.3 Approaches to Policy Implementation
      • 16.3.1 Top-Down Approach
      • 16.3.2 Bottom-Up Approach
      • 16.3.3 Macro- and Micro-implementation
      • 16.3.4 Principal–Agent Theory
    • 16.4 Investigating Five Cases of Climate Change and Renewable Energy Policy
      • 16.4.1 Assessing the EU Policy Package on Climate Change and Renewables
      • 16.4.2 German Nuclear Phase-Out and Energy Transition Policy
      • 16.4.3 KNOWBRIDGE: Cross-Border Knowledge Bridge in the RES Cluster in East Slovakia and North Hungary
      • 16.4.4 KSR’s Strategy for the Use of Renewable Energy Sources
      • 16.4.5 MODEL: Management of Domains Related to Energy inLocal Authorities
    • 16.5 Comparison and Lessons from Analysis
    • 16.6 Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 17 Challenges to Policy-Making in Developing Countries and the Roles of Emerging Tools, Methods and Instruments: Experiences from Saint Petersburg
    • 17.1 Introduction
    • 17.2 Analytical Centres in the Russian Federation
    • 17.3 Situational Centres and the Development of the Theory of Situational Administration
    • 17.4 State Automated System “Administration”
    • 17.5 Other Policy-Making Tools and Techniques
    • 17.6 Conclusions
 

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Features of eParticipation Applications in Simulation Exercise

Literature on eParticipation tends to flow in multi-access stream, allowing for group contribution and utilization, mostly intensified by the UN–WSIS approach. A case in view is the Third International Federation for Information Processing held in the Netherlands at Delft, August/September 2011, with proceedings well circulated across the globe at all levels. Lee and Kim (2013) recognize that growing body of literature make emphasis on eParticipation as means of facilitating greater citizen participation. The eGovPoliNet, the policy community, aims at building a global multidisciplinary digital government and policy research and practice (eGovPoliNet 2014). This work contributes to a project by the eGovPoliNet on ICT-based or digital

19 eParticipation, Simulation Exercise and Leadership Training in Nigeria 419

solution for governance and policy by bringing to light the need to bridge the gap in local to global digital divide.

19.1.3 Statement of the Problem

Nigeria is a developing country, diverse and divided, where challenges in governance and overall democratic practices often hinge on effective coordination. Imobighe (1988, p. 4) opine that Nigerian leaders are not adequately conversant with tech- niques of effective coordination. This situation can be improved by application of ‘eParticipation’ principles and practice, particularly in leadership training for pol- icymakers. This chapter discusses the application of eParticipation principles and practice in ‘simulation exercise’ for ‘leadership training’. The Crisis game, a simula- tion exercise, of National Institute for Policy and Strategic Studies (NIPSS) is dealt as a case study on eParticipation, with the theme of ‘political zoning’.

19.1.4 Aim and Objectives

The chapter focuses on the use of innovative instruments and technologies as solution to policy problems through eParticipation as a contribution to bridging the digital divide. Its points of inquiry include:

a. What are the concepts and relationships of digital divide, eParticipation, simulation exercise, crisis game, leadership training, and political zoning?

b. How eParticipation is applicable to simulation exercises? c. To what extent eParticipation in leadership training can contribute in bridging the

digital divide? d. What recommendations can be proffered in promoting eParticipation for eGov-

ernance in the realm of eDemocracy in Nigeria?

19.1.5 Significance

The significance of this chapter is on the need to bridge the digital divide, from personal to local, national and global eParticipation, as a subset of e-government in the realm of eDemocracy. Its findings and recommendations would serve to improve much needed leadership skills for national development in Nigeria. It will also open grounds for scholarly and professional dialogue, understanding, and further research on the way forward in the field of eParticipation. It is hoped that the digital divide will close ranks from its lowest to the highest across the world, in a ‘glocal’ context.

420 T. Ahmed

19.2 Theoretical Framework

19.2.1 Major Theories in eParticipation

Major theories associated with application of eParticipation in activities of capacity building include the structuration, institutional, and actor-network. These theories address how ways of doing things affect the way such things are done. Islam (2008) suggests a framework for an effective eParticipation model applicable to any coun- try targeting some essential common elements for universal applicability. This is based on some theories and lessons learned from eParticipation practices in both developing and developed countries in the digital divide architecture. A triad of structuration, institutional, and actor-network are explained and constructed into a thrust, as follows:

a) Structuration Theory

Structural theory suggests that human activity and larger structures relate with each other in such a way that structures are produced or altered by new ways and means (Gauntlett 2002). The local to global structure of the digital divide is a construct which can be produced or altered by applied principles of eParticipation, especially associated with institutional practices. This is expressed in the earlier UNs’ WSIS cited above.

b) Institutional Theory

Institutional theory asserts that institutional environment influence the devel- opment of formal structures by diffusion of innovative structures http://faculty. babson.edu. Captured in the process of leadership training module, the tenets of this theory combine to impart eParticipation to beneficiaries as they engage in an interactive actor-network activities or exercise.

c) Actor-Network Theory

Actor-network theory treats individual objects as part of larger structure, map- ping relations between things and meanings, in a network of relations (Latour 1987, 1999, 2005; Law and Hassard 2005). A situation of simulated exercise ex- poses participants to a network of relations consolidating bottom-up connectivity capable of bridging gaps in the global digital divide architecture.

19.2.2 A Theoretical Framework

The above framework yields to the propositions that complex situations may appear simpler than expected based on a construct view of the observer (Schmidhuber 1997; Chater 1999; Chater and Vitany 2003; Dessalles 2010). In this wise, the interlock of the structuration, institutional and actor-network theories would generate principles

19 eParticipation, Simulation Exercise and Leadership Training in Nigeria 421

STRUCTURATION THEORY

PRINCIPLES

PRACTICE

ePARTICIPATION APPLICATION INSTITUTIONAL THEORY

ACTOR-NETWORK THEORY

Fig. 19.1 Construct of ‘3 Theory’ framework for application of eParticipation

and practice as common denominators. This construct in turn serves as a theoretical framework as presented in Fig. 19.1.

This proposition is used to test and apply the hypothesis that eParticipation can bridge the digital divide. The interplay of the major theories at hand attempts to val- idate this assumption in the case of eParticipation application to simulation exercise in leadership training in Nigeria.

19.2.3 A Hypothesis

Seen from the above theoretical prospect, the interlocking theories tend to generate principles and practices for application of eParticipation. Thus, this chapter hypoth- esizes that eParticipation application to simulation exercise for leadership training would enhance the bridging of digital divide.

19.3 Methodology

The method of study is mainly based on desk and library research, review of existing literature and analysis of acquired data. Focused group and individual interviews were conducted on stakeholders within the NIPSS. The chapter also examines empirical data used in the NIPSS simulation exercise on ‘political zoning in Nigeria’ to draw realistic conclusions. The theoretical framework is systematically applied and tested on the transmitted hypothesis downstream.

422 T. Ahmed

19.4 Conceptual Discourse

19.4.1 Digital Divide

Digital divide denotes the inequality of access to ICT or difference in opportuni- ties available to people who have access and those who do not. The term applies more to inequalities between individuals, households, businesses, and geographi- cal areas at different socioeconomic and other demographic scale categories (Norris 2001; Patricia 2003; US-NTIA 1995). Global Digital Divide, however, applies at the scale of nations as units of analysis, referring to gap between developing and devel- oped countries (Chinn and Fairlie 2004). The two terms of digital divide and global digital divide may be represented in vertical and horizontal dimensions, respectively.

Buente and Robbin (2008) and Hilbert (2011) outline different angles in concep- tualizing digital divide. They include subjects, characteristics, means, intensity, and purpose of connectivity corresponding to inquiries of ‘who’, ‘which’, ‘what’, ‘how’ and ‘why’. Huang and Chen (2010) add the dynamics of evolution to address the questions of whether and when. These approaches and inquiries provide a framework for discourse on eParticipation and simulation exercise as follows:

a. Subjects of connectivity (who), including individuals, organizations, institutions, etc.;

b. Characteristics or attributes (which) including demography, socioeconomic variables, geography, etc.;

c. Means (what) including equipment like telephone, Internet, television, radio, etc.; d. Intensity (how) including usage, access, interactivity, innovation, etc.; e. Purpose (why) including reason, cause, justification, etc.; and f. Dynamics of evolution (whether and when) including gap, utilization, develop-

ment, etc.

Selhofer and Huesing (2002) had earlier considered ‘digital divide’ as a modern version of the knowledge gap theory. The acquisition, access and utility of ICT are therefore very crucial to eParticipation in its entire ramification. This work focuses on ICT-supported activities expressed as eParticipation.

19.4.2 eParticipation

The letter ‘e’ signifies ‘electronic’, relating to computer application, use, access or practice. Participation refers to the act of taking part in joint activities for the pur- pose of reaching a common goal. eParticipation involves the adaptation, application and utilization of modern ICT equipment, practices, or processes in activities. The term is generally defined as ‘ICT-supported participation in processes involved in government and governance (Avdic et al. 2007), including administration, service delivery, decision making and policy making’.

19 eParticipation, Simulation Exercise and Leadership Training in Nigeria 423

Macintosh (2004) posits eParticipation to include the use of ICT to broaden and deepen political participation by enabling citizens to connect with one another. Clift (2003) encapsulates eParticipation as subset of e-government in the realm of eDemoc- racy for political processes at individual, local, state, regions, nations and global levels. Fraser (2006) reflects on the complexities arising from large number of differ- ent participation areas, stakeholders, levels of engagement, stages in policy making which characterize research and application. In this way, eParticipation becomes the threshold for digital circuit ‘effect’ or contact point. The subjects, characteristics, means, intensity and purpose of connectivity, all come to bear on eParticipation, particularly in its principles and practices of applications. One of such levels of application is found in the conduct of simulation exercise.

19.4.3 Simulation Exercise

Simulation is the production of essential features of something as an aid to study or training; while exercise refers to tasks designed and performed as a way of practice and improving skills and procedures of doing things. Simulation exercise is a training exercise in which participants perform same or all of the actions they would take in the event of plan activation, http://securemediastorage.co.uk/glossary.

Trends in training and education are replacing formal and extensive theoretical development with simulation exercises that develop ideas based on practical real- world situation (Biehler 1985; Gordon and Gordon 1992; Hogg 1992; Moore 1992). In some instances, entire course modules are zeroed into simulation exercises, for more practical benefits (Lipson 1997). This is demonstrated in the senior executive course module of NIPSS in which the Crisis Game simulation exercise is designed and introduced to inculcate leadership skills to its participants (Imobighe 1988, p. 4).

19.4.4 Crisis Game

Crisis is a situation or period in which things are uncertain, difficult or painful, especially a time when action must be taken to avoid complete disaster or breakdown. Game refers to competitive activity with rules in which participants strive or compete for scores or accomplishment of tasks. Crisis games are aspects of crisis management training in which participants deal or work through simulated crises to learn how to solve or cope with problems as they arise.

The purpose of Crisis Game at NIPSS is to simulate a crisis situation in order to equip participants of the senior executive course with skills to manage and resolve real-life crises. It is a decision-making tool designed for use by policymakers whose decisions usually have far-reaching effects on the polity. The convener of the NIPSS program, Imobighe (1988) elucidated that ‘crisis game is to strategic studies what clinical work is to the study of medicine’ (p. 5).

424 T. Ahmed

Crisis Games, as simulation exercises, are conducted for purpose of governance and policy modelling local-to-global implications. An example is the Unified Quest simulations conducted by the US Army War College with participants ranging from military officers to professors. Gardner (2008) reported a fictitious Nigerian scenario set in 2013 depicting a near collapse of government as rival factions vie for power. This is not irrelevant to the theme of ‘political zoning’ adopted for the NIPSS Crisis Game 2011.

19.4.5 Political Zoning

The word political concerns balance in power relationship especially in a group, organization or country. Zoning refers to the principle of using subsections of par- ticular area, like a country, divided for purposes of rational or rotational benefits. Political zoning embraces allotment, ration, rotation or sharing of offices or positions amongst contending interests within or amongst groupings like political parties and institutions of governance.

In Nigeria, zoning carries an extensive usage from the inception of the country to the present six geopolitical zones structure on which the current debate on zoning is staged. Thus, the issue of zoning is critical in the general schemes and activities of governance in Nigeria, and a delicate subject, not easy to contain. Further, extension on the concept and practice of zoning in Nigerian politics include administrative and legal expression of federal character, quota system, catchment areas, localization of projects, etc. Political zoning in Nigeria is a rooted and institutionalized practice requiring skills necessary for effective leadership. The NIPSS Crisis Game theme on political zoning provides for roles, units and tempo in exercise of eParticipation application for leadership training.

19.4.6 Leadership Training

Leadership is the ability to guide, direct or influence people in the accomplish- ment of set tasks. Training is the process of teaching or learning a skill or job. Leadership training or leadership development refers to any activity that enhances the quality of leadership within an individual or organization, http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Leadership_training. Leadership development is defined as an intentional effort to provide leaders and emerging leaders with opportunities to learn, grow and change, with skills to function effectively, www.hillconsultinggroup.org.

Imobighe (1988) assesses Nigerian crops of leaders and pronounced that:

. . . it has not been evident that the country’s leaders are adequately conversant with the techniques of crisis management. In most cases, they have relied on chance; and hardly were their responses based on any thorough and systematic appreciation of the mechanics for handling the relevant events. (pp. 3–4)

19 eParticipation, Simulation Exercise and Leadership Training in Nigeria 425

The need for leadership development in Nigeria necessitated the establishment of the NIPSS in 1979. Within the NIPSS senior executive course is the Crisis Game described as ‘crisis game simulation’ and considered as the ‘crowning event’ of the programme (Imobighe 1988).

19.5 Application of eParticipation in Simulation Exercise

19.5.1 Digital Opportunity Index (DOI)

The Digital Opportunity Index (DOI) operates on an e-index based on internationally accepted ICT indicators. The DOI is a standard tool for assessment of ICT perfor- mance within and across countries. These indicators are clustered into three main headings of opportunity, infrastructure and utilization applicable to the principles and application of eParticipation. For example, simulation exercises are administered on selected themes in scenarios activated by subjects, attributes, means, intensity and purpose for which they are staged. These exercises are designed to simulate state- of-play environment with briefs, timeframe, roles, locations, tempo and equipment similar to those encountered in real life.

19.5.2 Features of eParticipation Applications in Simulation Exercise

Individual or institutional participants, as subjects of simulation exercise, include persons or agencies charged with responsibilities for decision and policymaking and implementation. They bring forth the attributes of group dynamics in governance; utilization of the means through available equipment and skills; face the intensity of interactivity; and purpose of justified actions. The application of eParticipation to simulation exercise involves the use of modern ICT equipment, principles, practices and processes as tools.

19.5.3 Tools of eParticipation in Simulation Exercise

Simulation exercises are supported with tools ranging from ordinary electronic gad- gets like television sets, radio equipment, recorders, cameras, and other audio visual aids to higher and more sophisticated computer-based applications. They include networking, Internet and systems like the Web 2.0., which allows users to interact and collaborate with each other in a social media dialogue in real time http://scholar.googleusercontent.com. DiNucci (1999, pp. 221–222) describes this methodology as ‘the ether through which interactivity happens’.

426 T. Ahmed

 

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