CASPIANO

discussion 1 – BRADY

 

Data is something that every researcher needs in order to show his work and to justify whether his hypothesis is correct or incorrect. What you are actually researching can sometimes dictate how you need to do your research. There are two different types of research methods and that is quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative is exactly what it sounds like. Take statists and numbers along with results of everything that is being studied and researched to compare them with one another (Brians, 2011). Qualitative is more of a personal experience form of gathering data. Take for instance individuals that go and learn about other cultures. The journals or papers they write ae usually about their experiences and what they have seen. Their perspectives give rise to understanding and influence. It’s important to be able to understand the difference and have good comprehension as it will show you the best war to gather data for your hypothesis or subject you’re studying. Our research is for homeland security so let’s head in that direction.

 

 

 

A case can be had for either research method could be used to figure out which is the best but that is not the question. The question is which I believe is most helpful. Let’s say for instance new laws and regulations have been put in place to ensure that no terrorist get into the country or can attack America again. How are you going to quantify that information unless it has been done in a quantitative method where information is being compared to the time before the laws to the time after to see if the laws have worked?

 

 

 

Now that I have answered the question I would also like to point out that sometimes getting this information requires individuals to have the information from the field itself and to actually make suggestions based on their actual practical applications they have seen. This top couple is descriptive which could be one or the other method of data collection.

 

 

 

 

DISCUSSION 1 – Justin

 

 

Research methods are usually categorized as being either quantitative or qualitative. Explain the difference between quantitative and qualitative methods. Identify which method of research you believe is most useful in homeland security research.

 

Quantitative methods emphasis on detached observations and documenting the findings in a numerical manner. (Brian, Willnat, Manheim, & Rich, 2011).  Quantitative research needs to have specific question and have an idea of what you want you to gain from the research. 

 

Qualitative research, is “based on the researcher’s informed understanding” of the topic being researched (Brians, et al, 2011, p. 2).  The difference here would be that qualitative research focuses on the study of people in their own environment and watching events as the “naturally” take place (Brians, et al., 2011, p. 83). Qualitative is an evolution in the study of research as it unfolds and give a larger picture to me in that the observer can see the whole scope of the intel, such as the mood and the atmospherics, the context of the intel as it is being done in real time.

 

I believe that qualitive research would make the best for homeland security. To me this would give the most current intel in real time and understanding. The quantitative to me would be analyst’s interpretation as an outside source compiling data with a cause and effect as our text book states. TO me that would be too late and from an outside source that might not know how things were meant as they accorded. Although quantitative is good in my understanding for building trends to move into qualitive. (Boots on the ground in real time understanding the culture and tendency of the target)

 

 

Discussion 2 – Christopher

 

 

In my career and position I have to review research to make sure that we have the best practices in medical care.  One of articles that I recently reviewed was about the relationship of out of hospital cardiac arrest survival and bystander intervention.  The article “Association of Bystander and First-Responder Intervention With Survival After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in North Carolina, 2010-2013” takes a sample of 11 counties in North Carolina, according to Hansen et al (2015), “covering a total population of approximately 2.7 million inhabitants (30% of the state’s total population), with demographics varying from urban to rural areas served by 11 EMS agencies” (para.12).  This is a large sample that would be representative of the population served within the state.  The sample was collected through an interesting manner; a database with a formatted questionnaire was used which includes data from all states.  This database was used for the time in question and limited to a geographical area (North Carolina).  Essentially, providers in the field would complete a form after the interaction in the field. 

I do think that this uses a representative sample, Brians, Willnat, Manhein, Rich (2011), “one in which every major attribute of the larger population from which the sample is drawn is present in roughly the proportion or frequency with which those attributes occur in that larger population” (pg.133).  This would be the case in this study.  Looking into the ethical standards in this case it clearly a ethical study.  This study pulled from a database and did not deny any patient medical care, which could be unethical. Instead, every patient was afforded the same opportunities and first response.

 

Discussion 2 – Roberta

 

The subject I chose to research is “Animal Biowarfare Research: Historical Perspective and Potential Future Attacks” written in 2012 by Jung-Yong Yeh, Jee-Yong Park, Yun Sang Cho and In-Soo C. In this article the topic is about how animals have been targeted and used as a biological weapon since World War 1 by enemies as a form of weapon. This is known as argoterrorism. “The potential for terrorist attacks against agricultural targets (argoterrorism) is increasingly recognized as a national security threat. Argoterrorism refers to attacks with a variety of biological agents on commercial crops or livestock populations, either as targets or as vehicles by which to attack humans. Animal agriculture may be an easy target because large farms can be sabotaged as a point source, resulting in an extremely Argoterrorism; bioterrorism; foreign animal disease.” (Jung-Yong Yeh, 2012) The researchers have studied the deliberate introduction of biological contamination among livestock. “Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada and Japan, had biological weapons programmers that involved research on biological agents to target livestock and poultry.” (Jung-Yong Yeh, 2012) Germany investigated the introduction of Foot and Mouth Disease and rinderpest. The United Kingdom produced and stored 5 million cattle cakes laced with Anthrax that were to be dropped on livestock fields in Germany during World War II if needed. The United States, Canada and Great Britain investigated many animal diseases during WWII including Anthrax, brucellosis and glanders. They also studied rinderpest, Newcastle disease, and fowl plaque. Japan studied rinderpest. In the 1980’s Iraq studied camelpox. The Soviet Union weaponized the African Swine Fever, rinderpest and FMD. This article used the quantitative method by compiling research from past events. “Quantitative research tries to establish cause-and-effect relationships.” (Brians, 2011)

 

 

 

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