Discussion Post

Original Post–  Chlamydia Trachomatis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that infects the reproductive organs (WebMD, 2018). The portal entry of Chlamydia Trachomatis includes the following: the cervix, urethra, salpinges, uterus, nasopharynx, and epididymis. This disease is transmitted by oral, vaginal, and anal sex. The signs and symptoms of this disease include the following painful urination, lower abdominal pain, vaginal discharge in women, discharge from the penis in men, painful sexual intercourse in women, bleeding between periods and after sex in women, and testicular pain in men (MayoClinic, 2017). The course of this disease starts by infecting the columnar epithelial cells, which places the adolescent female at particular risk because of the presence of the squamocolumnar junction on the ectocervix until early adulthood. The initial response of epithelial cells to infection is a neutrophilic infiltration, followed by lymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells, and eosinophilic invasion. The release of cytokines and interferons by the infected epithelial cell initializes this inflammatory cascade. Infection with chlamydial organisms invokes a humoral cell response, resulting in secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) and circulatory immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and a cellular immune response. Chlamydiae have a unique biphasic life cycle that is adaptable to both intracellular and extracellular environments. In the extracellular milieu, the so-called elementary body (EB) is found. EBs are metabolically inactive infectious particles; functionally, they are spore-type structures. Once inside a susceptible host cell, the EB prevents phagosome-lysozyme fusion and then undergoes reorganization to form a reticulate body (RB). The RB synthesizes its own DNA, RNA, and proteins but requires energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from the host cell. After a sufficient amount of RBs have formed, some transform back into EBs, exiting the cell to infect others (MedScape, 2017). Virulence Factors of this disease is the Chlamydiae, small gram-negative obligate intracellular microorganisms that infect squamocolumnar epithelial cells (MedScape, 2017). Laboratory Diagnosis for this disease are a urine test and culture test that is done with a swab (MayoClinic, 2017). This disease is treated with antibiotics (MayoClinic, 2017). This disease can be prevented by using a condom, limit your number of sex partners, get regular screenings, and avoid douching. The portal of exit is the same as the portal of entry.

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