1. Define health care management and health care managers.
2. Delineate the functions carried out by health care managers and give an example of a task in each function.
3. Explain why interpersonal skills are important in health care management.
4. Compare and contrast three models of organizational design.
5. Why is the health care manager’s role in ensuring high performance so critical? Explain.
6. Characterize the health care manager’s role in change management and assess the extent to which this has an impact on the success of the change process.
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Leadership Louis Rubino
LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this chapter, the student will be able to:
Distinguish between leadership and management; Summarize the history of leadership in the U.S. from the 1920s to current times;
Compare and contrast leadership styles, competencies, and protocols; Summarize old and new governance trends; Analyze key barriers and challenges to successful leadership; Provide a rationale for why health care leaders have a greater need for ethical behavior;
Explore important new initiatives requiring health care leaders’ engagement; and
Discuss special research issues related to leadership.
LEADERSHIP VS. MANAGEMENT In any business setting, there must be leaders as well as managers. But are these the same people? Not necessarily. There are leaders who are good managers and there are managers who are good leaders, but usually neither case is the norm. In health care, this is especially important to recognize because of the need for both. Health care is unique in that it is a service industry that depends on a large number of highly trained personnel as well as trade workers. Whatever the setting, be it a hospital, a long-term care facility, an ambulatory care center, a medical
device company, an insurance company, an accountable care organization, or some other health care entity, leaders as well as managers are needed to keep the organization moving in a forward direction and, at the same time, maintain current operations. This is done by leading and managing its people and assuring good business practices.
Leaders usually take a focus that is more external, whereas the focus of managers is more internal. Even though they need to be sure their health care facility is operating properly, leaders tend to spend the majority of their time communicating and aligning with outside groups that can benefit their organizations (partners, community, vendors) or influence them (government, public agencies, media). See Figure 2-1. There is crossover between leaders and managers across the various areas, though a distinction remains for certain duties and responsibilities.
Usually the top person in the organization (e.g., Chief Executive Officer, Administrator, Director) has full and ultimate accountability. This type of leader may be dictated by the current conditions faced by the organization. A more strategic leader, who defines purpose and vision and aligns people, processes, and values, may be needed. Or, a network leader, who could connect people across disciplines, organizational departments, and regions, may be essential. Whichever type surfaces, there will be several managers reporting to this person, all of whom have various functional responsibilities for different areas of the organization (e.g., Chief Nursing Officer, Physician Director, Chief Information Officer). These managers can certainly be leaders in their own areas, but their focus will be more internal within the organization’s operations. They are the operational leaders of the organization. Together, these three types of leaders/followers produce an interdependent leadership system, a team which will prove more high performing in the current health care field (Maccoby, Norman, Norman, & Margolies, 2013).
FIGURE 2-1 Leadership and Management Focus
Leaders have a particular set of competencies that require more forward thinking than those of managers. Leaders need to set a vision or direction for the organization. They need to be able to motivate their employees, as well as other stakeholders, so the business continues to exist and, hopefully, thrive in periods of change. No industry is as dynamic as health care, with rapid change occurring due to the complexity of the system and government regulations. Leaders are needed to keep the entity on course and to maneuver around obstacles, like a captain commanding his ship at sea. Managers must tend to the business at hand and make sure the staff is following proper procedures and meeting established targets and goals. They need a different set of competencies. See Table 2-1.
HISTORY OF LEADERSHIP IN THE U.S. Leaders have been around since the beginning of man. We think of the strongest
male becoming the leader of a caveman clan. In Plato’s time, the Greeks began to talk about the concept of leadership and acknowledged the political system as critical for leaders to emerge in a society. In Germany during the late 19th century, Sigmund Freud described leadership as unconscious exhibited behavior; later, Max Weber identified how leadership is present in a bureaucracy through assigned roles. Formal leadership studies in the U.S., though, have only been around for the last 100 years (Sibbet, 1997).
We can look at the decades spanning the 20th century to see how leadership theories evolved, placing their center of attention on certain key components at different times (Northouse, 2016). These emphases often matched or were adapted from the changes occurring in society.
With the industrialization of the U.S. in the 1920s, productivity was of paramount importance. Scientific management was introduced, and researchers tried to determine which characteristics were identified with the most effective leaders based on their units having high productivity. The Great Man Theory was developed out of the idea that certain traits determined good leadership. The traits that were recognized as necessary for effective leaders were ones that were already inherent in the person, such as being male, being tall, being strong, and even being Caucasian. Even the idea that “you either got it or you don’t” was supported by this theory, the notion being that a good leader had charisma. Behaviors were not considered important in determining what made a good leader. This theory discouraged anyone who did not have the specified traits from aspiring to a leadership position.
Fortunately, after two decades, businesses realized leadership could be enhanced through certain conscious acts, and researchers began to study which behaviors would produce better results. Resources were in short supply due to World War II, and leaders were needed who could truly produce good results.
This was the beginning of the Style Approach to Leadership. Rather than looking at only the characteristics of the leader, researchers started to recognize the importance of two types of behaviors in successful leadership: completing tasks and creating good relationships. This theory states leaders have differing degrees of concern over each of these behaviors, and the best leaders would be fully attentive to both.
In the 1960s, American society had a renewed emphasis on helping all of its people and began a series of social programs that still remain today. The two that impact health care directly, by providing essential services, are Medicare for the elderly (age 65 and over) and the disabled and Medicaid for the indigent population. The Situational Approach to Leadership then came into prominence and supported this national concern. This set of theories focused on the leader changing his or her behavior in certain situations in order to meet the needs of subordinates. This would imply a very fluid leadership process whereby one can adapt one’s actions to an employee’s needs at any given time.
Not much later, researchers believed perhaps leaders should not have to change how they behaved in a work setting, but instead the appropriate leaders should be selected from the very beginning. This is the Contingency Theory of Leadership and was very popular in the 1970s. Under this theory, the focus was on both the leader’s style as well as the situation in which the leader worked, thus building upon the two earlier theories. This approach was further developed by what is known as the Path–Goal Theory of Leadership. This theory still placed its attention on the leader’s style and the work situation (subordinate characteristics and work task structure) but also recognized the importance of setting goals for employees. The leader was expected to remove any obstacles in order to provide the support necessary for them to achieve those goals.
In the later 1970s, the U.S. was coming out of the Vietnam War, in which many of its citizens did not think the country should have been involved. More concern was expressed over relationships as the society became more psychologically attuned to how people felt. The Leader–Member Exchange Theory evolved over the concern that leadership was being defined by the leader, the follower, and the context. This new way of looking at leadership focused on the interactions that occur between the leaders and the followers. This theory claimed leaders could be more effective if they developed better relationships with their subordinates through high-quality exchanges.
After Vietnam and a series of weak political leaders, Americans were looking for people to take charge who could really make a difference. Charismatic leaders came back into vogue, as demonstrated by the support shown to President Ronald
Reagan, an actor turned politician. Unlike the Great Man Theory earlier in the century, this time the leader had to have certain skills to transform the organization through inspirational motivational efforts. Leadership was not centered upon transactional processes that tied rewards or corrective actions to performance. Rather, the transformational leader could significantly change an organization through its people by raising their consciousness, empowering them, and then providing the nurturing needed as they produced the results desired.
In the late 1980s, the U.S. started to look more globally for ways to have better production. Total Quality Management became a popular concept and arose from researchers studying Japanese principles of managing production lines. In the health care setting, this was embraced through a process still used today called Continuous Quality Improvement or Performance Improvement. In the decade to follow, leaders assigned subordinates to a series of work groups in order to focus on a particular area of production. Attention was placed on developing the team for higher level functioning and on how a leader could create a work environment that could improve the performance of the team. Individual team members were expendable, and the team entity was all important.
We have entered the 21st century with some of the greatest leadership challenges ever in the health care field. Critical personnel shortages, limited resources, and increased governmental regulations provide an environment that yearns for leaders who are attentive to the organization and its people, yet can still address the big picture. Several of today’s leadership models relate well to the dynamism of the health care field and are presented here. Looking at these models, there seems to be a consistent pattern of self-aware leaders who are concerned for their employees and understand the importance of meaningful work. As we entered the 2000s, leaders needed to use Adaptive Leadership to create flexible organizations able to meet the relentless succession of challenges faced in health care and elsewhere (Heifetz, Grashow, & Linsky, 2009). Plus, today’s astute health care leaders recognize the importance of considering the global environment, as health care wrestles with international issues that impact us locally, such as outsourcing services, medical tourism, and over-the-border drug purchases, giving rise to the global leader. See Table 2-2.
CONTEMPORARY MODELS Today’s health care industry does not prescribe any one type of leadership model. Many leaders are successful drawing from a variety of traditional and