18 of 30What is the primary difference between an ascribed status and an achieved status?Achieved statuses have roles attached to them but ascribed statuses do not.Ascribed statuses never change while achieved statuses do.Ascribed statuses are involuntary while achieved statuses are voluntary.Ascribed statues can also be a master status but achieved statuses cannot.Question19 of 30The domestication of plants and animals was to the first social revolution as the ________ was to the fourth social revolution.invention of the plowinvention of the steam engineinvention of the microchipdecoding of the human genome systemQuestion20 of 30According to Durkheim, the shared consciousness that people experience as a result of performing the same or similar tasks is called ________.mechanical solidarityorganic solidaritygemeinschaftgesellschaftQuestion21 of 30Sarah works for the American Hair and Felt Corporation. This group is one of the ________ groups to which Sarah belongs.primaryout-secondaryreferenceQuestion22 of 30Because of a sense of belonging and loyalty to our in-groups, we often tend to judge our own group?s traits as virtues, but see the same traits in other groups as vices. This judgment of superiority is an example of ________.subcultural relativitycultural objectivitya double standardcultural pluralismQuestion23 of 30Upon graduating from a small midwestern high school, Joe enrolled in a large, west coast university. He observed that his classmates used different slang terms and wore clothing quite different from that worn in his old high school. Joe began to adopt the behavior patterns of the new college peers that now made up his ________.primary groupreference groupsecondary groupout-groupQuestion24 of 30Most major companies sponsor ?diversity training? lectures and workshops for their employees. What is theultimate purpose of these efforts?They stimulate an understanding of cultural differences.They increase stereotypes and segregation of employees.They increase company profits.They emphasize the qualities that will lead to workers? success.Question25 of 30Which is not characteristic of a bureaucracy:Written rules.A division of labor.Impersonality.Individual decision making.Question26 of 30What conclusion can be drawn from Solomon Asch?s experiment on group conformity?Because of group pressure, most people are willing to say things they know are not true.Americans are highly individualistic and reluctant to conform to group pressure.Women are more susceptible to group pressure than men.Younger people are more susceptible to group pressure than older adults.Question27 of 30The coexistence of such values as democracy and equality alongside the values of hard work, education, and efficiency illustrate the condition of ________.value clustersvalue strainvalue coexistencevalue contradictionQuestion28 of 30The research method referred to as ?participant observation? is also called ________.field worksurvey researchsecondary analysisexperimentationQuestion29 of 30In the United States, the best example of the nonmaterial culture never catching up with the material culture is illustrated by:the nine-month school year.the idea of shopping on the Internet.the replacement of small town shopping by shopping at the mall.the introduction of multiculturalism and a persistence of prejudice in the South.
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