the important role technology and technological changes have in the management of public organizations. We will examine not only the function of information systems as a tool for administration but also the budget and organizational challenges to implementing new systems.

Week Seven In week 7 we examine the important role technology and technological changes have in the management of public organizations. We will examine not only the function of information systems as a tool for administration but also the budget and organizational challenges to implementing new systems. The impact on privacy and surveillance polices are also important issues. As we study this week, consider the following: Virtual organizations Information technology effects on public employees GIS (geographic information system) This week you will learn to understand how to plan and implement current and emerging information technologies and to expand the concept of information technology management. In addition, you will learn to develop a plan to manage a government career that is performance based and broad enough in detail. You will examine the relationship between managers and those responsible for providing information. Technology discussions often begin with a discussion of the Internet. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), originally named ARPAnet funded the beginnings of the internet (Cropf, 2008, p. 356) These first attempts were packet network systems that used TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol). These protocols told specifically how data for transmission was to be packeted, address, transmitted, routed, and received between host computers. Using packets instead of circuits was an important advance for communication between computers. (Internet, 2016) Originally, only four computers were connected to ARPAnet (Advanced Research Projects Agency) in 1969. The original idea was to send messages between a network of scientific computers, but computers had different operating systems, creating some difficult challenges until minicomputers became available and changed the economics. From this point, the Internet grew, resulting in commercialization of the Internet resulting in the definition of the word Internet by the Federal Networking Council (FNC). Today, Internet users are familiar with terms such as database, JavaScript, HTML and Dynamic HTML (DHTML), Java, Graphics World Wide Web, eXtensible Markup Language (XML), and encryption. The Internet technology has spread from computers to phones, tablets, and other devices.

As more people and organizations (including government organizations) use the Internet, there have been new challenges, including privacy, security, use of technology in education and the workplace, and accessibility for people who have disabilities. As the use of computers has grown to include things such as computer assisted learning, distance education, adaptive technologies for people with special needs, the funding requirements have also grown. This all requires careful budgeting. While the government understands the need for technology, there are some issues. Consider for example that the Office of Personnel Management was hacked in 2015 compromising the sensitive data of more than 21.5 million people. This followed many other cybersecurity breaches and failures, most occurring during 2013 and 2014. Another example of poorly executed technology is the creation of healthcare.gov. This website launch failed to achieve most of its objectives by its launch date, and was beset by problems after its launch. It launched in October 2013 only to crash when users tried to sign up for health care coverage. Rather than having a single contractor in charge, the Center for Medical and Medicaid Services (CMS) had 33 contractors. Additionally, the contracts put the government at risk of overruns for several contracts. People who had created accounts found the site didn’t recognize them., People found that the site miscalculated subsidies they might receive. http://www.govtech.com/state/Can-Government-Avoid-Technology-Failure.html Consider how technology impacts governments and citizens in both positive and negative ways.

 

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