There are security protocols from IP layer (e.g., IPSec) to the application layer (e.g. XML and S/MIME). Are they redundant?

There are security protocols from IP layer (e.g., IPSec) to the application layer (e.g. XML and S/MIME). Are they redundant? Is it possible to design a universal security solution at one layer? Provide arguments to support your viewpoint. The solution should be approximately two pages in length.

 

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