Introduction to Health Care Management
Sharon B. Buchbinder, RN, PhD Professor and Program Coordinator
MS in Healthcare Management Program School of Graduate and Professional Studies
Stevenson University Owings Mills, Maryland
Nancy H. Shanks, PhD Professor Emeritus
Department of Health Professions Health Care Management Program
Metropolitan State University of Denver Denver, Colorado
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We dedicate this book to our loving husbands, Dale Buchbinder and Rick Shanks—
Who coached, collaborated, and coerced us to “FINISH THE THIRD EDITION!”
FOREWORD PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ABOUT THE EDITORS CONTRIBUTORS
CHAPTER 1 An Overview of Health Care Management Jon M. Thompson, Sharon B. Buchbinder, and Nancy H. Shanks
Introduction The Need for Managers and Their Perspectives Management: Definition, Functions, and Competencies Management Positions: The Control in the Organizational
Heirarchy Focus of Management: Self, Unit/Team, and Organization Role of the Manager in Establishing and Maintaining
Organizational Culture Role of the Manager in Talent Management Role of the Manager in Ensuring High Performance Role of the Manager in Leadership Development and
Succession Planning Role of the Manager in Innovation and Change
Management Role of the Manager in Health Care Policy Research in Health Care Management Chapter Summary
CHAPTER 2 Leadership Louis Rubino
Leadership vs. Management
History of Leadership in the U.S. Contemporary Models Leadership Styles Leadership Competencies Leadership Protocols Governance Barriers and Challenges Ethical Responsibility Important New Initiatives Leaders Looking to the Future Special Research Issues Conclusion
CHAPTER 3 Management and Motivation Nancy H. Shanks and Amy Dore
Introduction Motivation—The Concept History of Motivation Theories of Motivation A Bit More About Incentives and Rewards Why Motivation Matters Motivated vs. Engaged—Are the Terms the Same? Measuring Engagement Misconceptions About Motivation and Employee
Satisfaction Motivational and Engagement Strategies Motivating Across Generations Managing Across Generations Research Opportunities in Management and Motivation Conclusion
CHAPTER 4 Organizational Behavior and Management Thinking Sheila K. McGinnis
Introduction The Field of Organizational Behavior Organizational Behavior’s Contribution to Management Key Topics in Organizational Behavior Organizational Behavior Issues in Health Organizations Thinking: The “Inner Game” of Organizational Behavior The Four Key Features of Thinking Mental Representation: The Infrastucture of Thinking Processing Information: Fundamental Thinking Habits Decision Making, Problem Solving, and Biased Thinking
Habits Social Cognition and Socio-Emotional Intelligence Research Opportunities in Organizational Behavior and
Management Thinking Conclusion
CHAPTER 5 Strategic Planning Susan Casciani
Introduction Purpose and Importance of Strategic Planning The Planning Process SWOT Analysis Strategy Identification and Selection Rollout and Implementation Outcomes Monitoring and Control Strategy Execution Strategic Planning and Execution: The Role of the Health
Care Manager Opportunities for Research in Strategic Planning Conclusion
CHAPTER 6 Healthcare Marketing Nancy K. Sayre
What Is Marketing? A Brief History of Marketing in Health Care The Strategic Marketing Process Understanding Marketing Management Health Care Buyer Behavior Marketing Mix Marketing Plan Ethics and Social Responsibility Opportunities for Research in Health Care Marketing Conclusion
CHAPTER 7 Quality Improvement Basics Eric S. Williams, Grant T. Savage, and Patricia A. Patrician
Introduction Defining Quality in Health Care Why Is Quality Important? The Relevance of Health Information Technology in
Quality Improvement Quality Improvement Comes (Back) to America Leaders of the Quality Movement Baldrige Award Criteria: A Strategic Framework for Quality
Improvement Common Elements of Quality Improvement Three Approaches to Quality Improvement Quality Improvement Tools Opportunities for Research in Health Care Quality Conclusion
CHAPTER 8 Information Technology Nancy H. Shanks and Sharon B. Buchbinder
Introduction Information Systems Used by Managers The Electronic Medical Record (EMR)
The Challenges to Clinical System Adoption The Future of Health Care Information Technology The Impact of Information Technology on the Health Care
Manager Opportunities for Research on Health Care Professionals Conclusion
CHAPTER 9 Financing Health Care and Health Insurance Nancy H. Shanks
Introduction Introduction to Health Insurance Brief History of Health Insurance Characteristics of Health Insurance Private Health Insurance Coverage The Evolution of Social Insurance Major “Players” in the Social Insurance Arena Statistics on Health Insurance Coverage and Costs Those Not Covered—The Uninsured Opportunities for Research on Emerging Issues Conclusion
CHAPTER 10 Managing Costs and Revenues Kevin D. Zeiler
Introduction What Is Financial Management and Why Is It Important? Tax Status of Health Care Organizations Financial Governance and Responsibility Structure Managing Reimbursements from Third-Party Payers Coding in Health Care Controlling Costs and Cost Accounting Setting Charges Managing Working Capital Managing Accounts Receivable
Managing Materials and Inventory Managing Budgets Opportunities for Research on Managing Costs and
CHAPTER 11 Managing Health Care Professionals Sharon B. Buchbinder and Dale Buchbinder
Introduction Physicians Registered Nurses Licensed Practical Nurses/Licensed Vocational Nurses Nursing Assistants and Orderlies Home Health Aides Midlevel Practitioners Allied Health Professionals Opportunities for Research on Health Care Professionals Conclusion
CHAPTER 12 The Strategic Management of Human Resources Jon M. Thompson
Introduction Environmental Forces Affecting Human Resources
Management Understanding Employees as Drivers of Organizational
Performance Key Functions of Human Resources Management Workforce Planning/Recruitment Employee Retention Research in Human Resources Management Conclusion
CHAPTER 13 Teamwork Sharon B. Buchbinder and Jon M. Thompson
Introduction What Is a Team? The Challenge of Teamwork in Health Care Organizations The Benefits of Effective Health Care Teams The Costs of Teamwork Electronic Tools and Remote and Virtual Teams Face to Face Versus Virtual Teams Real-World Problems and Teamwork Who’s on the Team? Emotions and Teamwork Team Communication Methods of Managing Teams of Health Care Professionals Opportunities for Research on Emerging Issues Conclusion
CHAPTER 14 Addressing Health Disparities: Cultural Proficiency Nancy K. Sayre
Introduction Changing U.S. Demographics and Patient Populations Addressing Health Disparities by Fostering Cultural
Competence in Health Care Organizations Best Practices Addressing Health Disparities by Enhancing Public Policy Opportunities for Research on Health Disparities and
Cultural Proficiency Conclusion
CHAPTER 15 Ethics and Law Kevin D. Zeiler
Introduction Legal Concepts Tort Law Malpractice
Contract Law Ethical Concepts Patient and Provider Rights and Responsibilities Legal/Ethical Concerns in Managed Care Biomedical Concerns Beginning- and End-of-Life Care Opportunities for Research in Health Care Ethics and Law Conclusion
CHAPTER 16 Fraud and Abuse Kevin D. Zeiler
Introduction What Is Fraud and Abuse? History The Social Security Act and the Criminal-Disclosure
Provision The Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act Antitrust Issues Physician Self-Referral/Anti-Kickback/Safe Harbor Laws Management Responsibility for Compliance and Internal
Controls Corporate Compliance Programs Opportunities for Research in Fraud and Abuse Conclusion
CHAPTER 17 Special Topics and Emerging Issues in Health Care Management Sharon B. Buchbinder and Nancy H. Shanks
Introduction Re-Emerging Outbreaks, Vaccine Preventable Diseases,
and Deaths Bioterrorism in Health Care Settings Human Trafficking Violence in Health Care Settings
Medical Tourism Consumer-Directed Health Care Opportunities for Research on Emerging Issues
CHAPTER 18 Health Care Management Case Studies and Guidelines Sharon B. Buchbinder, Donna M. Cox, and Susan Casciani
Introduction Case Study Analysis Case Study Write-Up Team Structure and Process for Completion
CASE STUDIES* Metro Renal—Case for Chapters 12 and 2 United Physician Group—Case for Chapters 5, 9, 11, and 15 Piecework—Case for Chapters 9 and 10 Building a Better MIS-Trap—Case for Chapter 8 Death by Measles—Case for Chapters 17, 11, and 15 Full Moon or Bad Planning?—Case for Chapters 17, 11, and
15 How Do We Handle a Girl Like Maria?—Case for Chapters
17 and 4 The Condescending Dental Hygienist—Case for Chapters
7, 12, 15, and 4 The “Easy” Software Upgrade at Delmar Ortho—Case for
Chapters 8 and 13 The Brawler—Case for Chapters 11, 12, and 17 I Love You…Forever—Case for Chapters 17, 12, and 11 Managing Health Care Professionals—Mini-Case Studies
for Chapter 11 Problems with the Pre-Admission Call Center—Case for
Chapters 13 and 10 Such a Nice Young Man—Case for Chapters 17, 11, and 12 Sundowner or Victim?—Case for Chapters 15 and 17 Last Chance Hospital—Case for Chapters 5 and 6
The Magic Is Gone—Case for Chapters 3, 12, and 13 Set Up for Failure?—Case for Chapter 3 Sustaining an Academic Food Science and Nutrition Center
Through Management Improvement—Case for Chapters 2 and 12
Giving Feedback—Empathy or Attributions?—Case for Chapter 4
Socio-Emotional Intelligence Exercise: Understanding and Anticipating Major Change—Case for Chapter 4
Madison Community Hospital Addresses Infection Prevention—Case for Chapters 7 and 13
Trouble with the Pharmacy—Case for Chapter 7 Emotional Intelligence in Labor and Delivery—Case for
Chapters 2, 12, and 13 Communication of Patient Information During Transitions
in Care—Case for Chapters 7 and 12 Multidrug-Resistant Organism (MDRO) in a Transitional
Care Unit—Case for Chapters 7 and 12 Are We Culturally Aware or Not?—Case for Chapters 14
and 5 Patients “Like” Social Media—Case for Chapters 6 and 5 Where Do You Live? Health Disparities Across the United
States—Case for Chapter 14 My Parents Are Turning 65 and Need Help Signing Up for
Medicare—Case for Chapter 9 Newby Health Systems Needs Health Insurance—Case for
Chapter 9 To Partner or Not to Partner with a Retail Company—Case
for Chapters 17, 5, and 6 Wellness Tourism: An Option for Your Organization?—
Case for Chapters 17 and 5 Conflict in the Capital Budgeting Process at University
Medical Center: Let’s All Just Get Along—Case for Chapter 10
The New Toy at City Medical Center—Case for Chapters
11 and 13 Recruitment Challenge for the Middle Manager—Case for
Chapters 2 and 12 I Want to Be a Medical Coder—Case for Chapter 10 Managing Costs and Revenues at Feel Better Pharmacy—
Case for Chapter 10 Who You Gonna Call?—Case for Chapter 16 You Will Do What You Are Told—Case for Chapter 15
In the U.S., health care is the largest industry and the second-largest employer, with more than 11 million jobs. This continuous growth trend is a result of many consequences, including: the large, aging Baby Boomer population, whose members are remaining active later in life, contributing to an increase in the demand for medical services; the rapidly changing financial structure and increasingly complex regulatory environment of health care; the integration of health care delivery systems, restructuring of work, and an increased focus on preventive care; and the ubiquitous technological innovations, requiring unceasing educational training and monitoring.
Given this tremendous growth and the aforementioned causes of it, it is not surprising that among the fastest-growing disciplines, according to federal statistics, is health care management, which is projected to grow 23% in the next decade. Supporting this growth are the increasing numbers of undergraduate programs in health care management, health services administration, and health planning and policy—with over 300 programs in operation nationwide today.
The health care manager’s job description is constantly evolving to adapt to this hyper-turbulent environment. Health care managers will be called on to improve efficiency in health care facilities and the quality of the care provided; to manage, direct, and coordinate health services in a variety of settings, from long-term care facilities and hospitals to medical group practices; and to minimize costs and maximize efficiencies, while also ensuring that the services provided are the best possible.
As the person in charge of a health care facility, a health care administrator’s duties can be varied and complex. Handling such responsibilities requires a mix of business administration skills and knowledge of health services, as well as the federal and state laws and regulations that govern the industry.
Written by leading scholars in the field, this compendium provides future and current health care managers with the foundational knowledge needed to succeed. Drs. Buchbinder and Shanks, with their many years of clinical, practitioner, administration, and academic experience, have assembled experts in all aspects of health care management to share their knowledge and experiences. These unique viewpoints, shared in both the content and case studies accompanying each chapter, provide valuable insight into the health care industry and delve into the
core competencies required of today’s health care managers: leadership, critical thinking, strategic planning, finance and accounting, managing human resources and professionals, ethical and legal concerns, and information and technology management. Contributing authors include clinicians, administrators, professors, and students, allowing for a variety of perspectives.
Faculty will also benefit from the depth and breadth of content coverage spanning all classes in an undergraduate health care management curriculum. Its most appropriate utility may be found in introductory management courses; however, the vast array of cases would bring value to courses in health care ethics, managerial finance, quality management, and organizational behavior.
This text will serve as a cornerstone document for students in health management educational programs and provide them with the insight necessary to be effective health care managers. Students will find this textbook an indispensable resource to utilize both during their academic programs, as well as when they enter the field of health care management. It is already on its way to becoming one of the “classics” in the field!
Dawn Oetjen, PhD Associate Dean, Administration and Faculty Affairs
College of Health and Public Affairs University of Central Florida
The third edition of Introduction to Health Care Management is driven by our continuing desire to have an excellent textbook that meets the needs of the health care management field, health care management educators, and students enrolled in health care management programs around the world. The inspiration for the first edition of this book came over a good cup of coffee and a deep-seated unhappiness with the texts available in 2004. This edition builds on the strengths of the first two editions and is based on an ongoing conversation with end users— instructors and students—from all types of higher education institutions and all types of delivery modalities. Whether your institution is a traditional “bricks and mortar” school or a fully online one, this book and its ancillary materials are formatted for your ease of use and adoption.
For this edition, many of the same master teachers and researchers with expertise in each topic revised and updated their chapters. Several new contributors stepped forward and wrote completely new cases for this text because we listened to you, our readers and users. With a track record of more than eight years in the field, we learned exactly what did or did not work in the classrooms and online, so we further enhanced and refined our student- and professor- friendly textbook. We are grateful to all our authors for their insightful, well- written chapters and our abundant, realistic case studies.
As before, this textbook will be useful to a wide variety of students and programs. Undergraduate students in health care management, nursing, public health, nutrition, athletic training, and allied health programs will find the writing to be engaging. In addition, students in graduate programs in discipline-specific areas, such as business administration, nursing, pharmacy, occupational therapy, public administration, and public health, will find the materials both theory-based and readily applicable to real-world settings. With four decades of experience in higher education, we know first and foremost that teaching and learning are not solo sports, but a team effort—a contact sport. There must be a give-and-take between the students and the instructors for deep learning to take place. This text uses active learning methods to achieve this goal. Along with lively writing and content critical for a foundation in health care management, this third edition continues to provide realistic information that can be applied immediately to the real world of health care management. In addition to revised and updated chapters
from the second edition, there are learning objectives, discussion questions, and case studies included for each chapter, with additional instructors’ resources online and Instructor’s Guides for all of the case studies. PowerPoint slides, Test Bank items, and research sources are also included for each chapter, as well as a glossary. A sample syllabus is also provided. Specifically, the third edition contains:
Significantly revised chapters on organizational behavior and management thinking, quality improvement, and information technology.
Revisions and updates to all chapters, including current data and recent additions to the literature.
A new emphasis on research that is ongoing in each of the areas of health care.
A new chapter on a diverse group of emerging issues in health care management including: re-emerging outbreaks, vaccine-preventable diseases, and deaths; bioterrorism in health care settings; human trafficking; violence in health care settings; medical tourism; and consumer-directed health care.
Forty cases in the last chapter, 26 of which are new or totally revised for this edition. They cover a wide variety of settings and an assortment of health care management topics. At the end of each chapter, at least one specific case study is identified and linked to the content of that chapter. Many chapters have multiple cases.
Guides for all 40 cases provided with online materials. These will be beneficial to instructors as they evaluate student performance and will enable professors at every level of experience to hit the ground running on that first day of classes.
Totally revised test banks for each chapter, providing larger pools of questions and addressing our concerns that answers to the previous test banks could be purchased online.
Never underestimate the power of a good cup of joe. We hope you enjoy this book as much as we enjoyed revising it. May your classroom and online discussions be filled with active learning experiences, may your teaching be filled with good humor and fun, and may your coffee cup always be full.
Sharon B. Buchbinder, RN, PhD Stevenson University
Nancy H. Shanks, PhD
Metropolitan State University of Denver
This third edition is the result of what has now been a 10-year process involving many of the leaders in excellence in undergraduate health care management education. We continue to be deeply grateful to the Association of University Programs in Health Administration (AUPHA) faculty, members, and staff for all the support, both in time and expertise, in developing the proposal for this textbook and for providing us with excellent feedback for each edition.
More than 20 authors have made this contributed text a one-of-a-kind book. Not only are our authors expert teachers and practitioners in their disciplines and research niches, they are also practiced teachers and mentors. As we read each chapter and case study, we could hear the voices of each author. It has been a privilege and honor to work with each and every one of them: Mohamad Ali, Dale Buchbinder, Susan Casciani, Donna Cox, Amy Dore, Brenda Freshman, Callie Heyne, Ritamarie Little, Sheila McGinnis, Mike Moran, Patricia Patrician, Lou Rubino, Sharon Saracino, Grant Savage, Nancy Sayre, Windsor Sherrill, Jon Thompson, Eric Williams, and Kevin Zeiler.
And, finally, and never too often, we thank our husbands, Dale Buchbinder and Rick Shanks, who listened to long telephone conversations about the book’s revisions, trailed us to meetings and dinners, and served us wine with our whines. We love you and could not have done this without you.
About the Editors
Sharon B. Buchbinder, RN, PhD, is currently Professor and Program Coordinator of the MS in Healthcare Management Program at Stevenson University in Owings Mills, Maryland. Prior to this, she was Professor and Chair of the Department of Health Science at Towson University and President of the American Hospital Management Group Corporation, MASA Healthcare Co., a health care management education and health care delivery organization based in Owings Mills, Maryland. For more than four decades, Dr. Buchbinder has worked in many aspects of health care as a clinician, researcher, association executive, and academic. With a PhD in public health from the University of Illinois School of Public Health, she brings this blend of real-world experience and theoretical constructs to undergraduate and graduate face-to-face and online classrooms, where she is constantly reminded of how important good teaching really is. She is past chair of the Board of the Association of University Programs in Health Administration (AUPHA) and coauthor of the Bugbee Falk Award–winning Career Opportunities in Health Care Management: Perspectives from the Field. Dr. Buchbinder also coauthors Cases in Health Care Management with Nancy Shanks and Dale Buchbinder.
Nancy H. Shanks, PhD, has extensive experience in the health care field. For 12 years, she worked as a health services researcher and health policy analyst and later served as the executive director of a grant-making, fund-raising foundation that was associated with a large multihospital system in Denver. During the last 20 years, Dr. Shanks has been a health care administration educator at Metropolitan State University of Denver, where she has taught a variety of undergraduate courses in health services management, organization, research, human resources management, strategic management, and law. She is currently an Emeritus Professor of Health Care Management and an affiliate faculty member, after having served as Chair of the Department of Health Professions for seven years. Dr. Shanks’s research interests have focused on health policy issues, such as providing access to health care for the uninsured.
Mohamad A. Ali, MBA, MHA, CBM Healthcare Strategy Consultant MASA Healthcare, LLC Washington, DC
Dale Buchbinder, MD, FACS Chairman, Department of Surgery and Clinical Professor of Surgery The University of Maryland Medical School Good Samaritan Hospital Baltimore, MD
Susan Casciani, MSHA, MBA, FACHE Adjunct Professor Stevenson University Owings Mills, MD
Donna M. Cox, PhD Professor and Director Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs Prevention Center Department of Health Science Towson University Towson, MD
Amy Dore, DHA Associate Professor, Health Care Management Program Department of Health Professions Metropolitan State University of Denver Denver, CO
Brenda Freshman, PhD Associate Professor Health Administration Program
California State University, Long Beach Long Beach, CA
Callie E. Heyne, BS Research Associate Clemson University Clemson, SC
Ritamarie Little, MS, RD Associate Director Marilyn Magaram Center for Food Science, Nutrition, & Dietetics California State University, Northridge Northridge, CA
Sheila K. McGinnis, PhD Healthcare Transformation Director City College Montana State University, Billings Billings, MT
Michael Moran, DHA Adjunct Faculty School of Business University of Colorado, Denver Denver, CO
Patricia A. Patrician, PhD, RN, FAAN Colonel, U.S. Army (Retired) Donna Brown Banton Endowed Professor School of Nursing University of Alabama, Birmingham Birmingham, AL
Louis Rubino, PhD, FACHE Professor & Program Director Health Administration Program
Health Sciences Department California State University, Northridge Northridge, CA
Sharon Saracino, RN, CRRN Patient Safety Officer Nursing Department Allied Services Integrated Health Care System–Heinz Rehab Wilkes-Barre, PA
Grant T. Savage, PhD Professor of Management Management, Information Systems, & Quantitative Methods Department University of Alabama, Birmingham Birmingham, AL
Nancy K. Sayre, DHEd, PA, MHS Department Chair Department of Health Professions Coordinator, Health Care Management Program Assistant Professor, Health Care Management Program Metropolitan State University of Denver Denver, CO
Windsor Westbrook Sherrill, PhD Professor of Public Health Sciences Associate Vice President for Health Research Clemson University Clemson, SC
Jon M. Thompson, PhD Professor, Health Services Administration Director, Health Services Administration Program James Madison University Harrisonburg, VA
Eric S. Williams, PhD Associate Dean of Assessment and Continuous Improvement Professor of Health Care Management Minnie Miles Research Professor Culverhouse College of Commerce University of Alabama Tuscaloosa, AL
Kevin D. Zeiler, JD, MBA, EMT-P Associate Professor, Health Care Management Program Department of Health Professions Metropolitan State University of Denver Denver, CO
An Overview of Health Care Management
Jon M. Thompson, Sharon B. Buchbinder, and Nancy H. Shanks
LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this chapter, the student will be able to:
Define healthcare management and the role of the health care manager; Differentiate among the functions, roles, and responsibilities of health care managers;
Compare and contrast the key competencies of health care managers; and Identify current areas of research in health care management.
INTRODUCTION Any introductory text in health care management must clearly define the profession of health care management and discuss the major functions, roles, responsibilities, and competencies for health care managers. These topics are the focus of this chapter. Health care management is a growing profession with increasing opportunities in both direct care and non–direct care settings. As defined by Buchbinder and Thompson (2010, pp. 33–34), direct care settings are “those organizations that provide care directly to a patient, resident or client who seeks services from the organization.” Non-direct care settings are not directly involved in providing care to persons needing health services, but rather support the care of individuals through products and services made available to direct care settings. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS, 2014) indicates health care
management is one of the fastest-growing occupations, due to the expansion and diversification of the health care industry. The BLS projects that employment of medical and health services managers is expected to grow 23% from 2012 to 2022, faster than the average for all occupations (see Figure 1-1).
These managers are expected to be needed in both inpatient and outpatient care facilities, with the greatest growth in managerial positions occurring in outpatient centers, clinics, and physician practices. Hospitals, too, will experience a large number of managerial jobs because of the hospital sector’s large size. Moreover, these estimates do not reflect the significant growth in managerial positions in non–direct care settings, such as consulting firms, pharmaceutical companies, associations, and medical equipment companies. These non–direct care settings provide significant assistance to direct care organizations, and since the number of direct care managerial positions is expected to increase significantly, it is expected that growth will also occur in managerial positions in non–direct care settings.
Health care management is the profession that provides leadership and direction to organizations that deliver personal health services and to divisions, departments, units, or services within those organizations. Health care management provides significant rewards and personal satisfaction for those who want to make a difference in the lives of others. This chapter gives a comprehensive overview of health care management as a profession. Understanding the roles, responsibilities, and functions carried out by health care managers is important for those individuals considering the field to make informed decisions about the “fit.” This chapter provides a discussion of key management roles, responsibilities, and functions, as well as management positions at different levels within health care organizations. In addition, descriptions of supervisory level, mid-level, and senior management positions within different organizations are provided.
FIGURE 1-1 Occupations with the Most New Jobs in Hospitals, Projected 2012– 2022. Employment and Median Annual Wages, May 2013
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program (projected new jobs, 2012–2022) and Occupational Employment Statistics Survey (employment and median annual wages, May 2013).
THE NEED FOR MANAGERS AND THEIR PERSPECTIVES Health care organizations are complex and dynamic. The nature of organizations requires that managers provide leadership, as well as the supervision and coordination of employees. Organizations were created to achieve goals beyond the capacity of any single individual. In health care organizations, the scope and complexity of tasks carried out in provision of services are so great that individual staff operating on their own could not get the job done. Moreover, the necessary tasks in producing services in health care organizations require the coordination of many highly specialized disciplines that must work together seamlessly. Managers are needed to ensure organizational tasks are carried out in the best way possible to achieve organizational goals and that appropriate resources, including financial
and human resources, are adequate to support the organization. Health care managers are appointed to positions of authority, where they shape
the organization by making important decisions. Such decisions relate, for example, to recruitment and development of staff, acquisition of technology, service additions and reductions, and allocation and spending of financial resources. Decisions made by health care managers not only focus on ensuring that the patient receives the most appropriate, timely, and effective services possible, but also address achievement of performance targets that are desired by the manager. Ultimately, decisions made by an individual manager impact the organization’s overall performance.
Managers must consider two domains as they carry out various tasks and make decisions (Thompson, 2007). These domains are termed external and internal domains (see Table 1-1). The external domain refers to the influences, resources, and activities that exist outside the boundary of the organization but that significantly affect the organization. These factors include community needs, population characteristics, and reimbursement from commercial insurers, as well as government plans, such as the Children’s Health Insurance Plans (CHIP), Medicare, and Medicaid. The internal domain refers to those areas of focus that managers need to address on a daily basis, such as ensuring the appropriate number and types of staff, financial performance, and quality of care. These internal areas reflect the operation of the organization where the manager has the most control. Keeping the dual perspective requires significant balance and effort on the part of management in order to make good decisions.
MANAGEMENT: DEFINITION, FUNCTIONS, AND
COMPETENCIES As discussed earlier, management is needed to support and coordinate the services provided within health care organizations. Management has been defined as the process, comprised of social and technical functions and activities, occurring within organizations for the purpose of accomplishing predetermined objectives through human and other resources (Longest, Rakich, & Darr, 2000). Implicit in the definition is that managers work through and with other people, carrying out technical and interpersonal activities to achieve the desired objectives of the organization. Others have stated that a manager is anyone in the organization who supports and is responsible for the work performance of one or more other persons (Lombardi & Schermerhorn, 2007).
While most beginning students of health care management tend to focus on the role of the senior manager or lead administrator of an organization, it should be realized that management occurs through many others who may not have “manager” in their position title. Examples of some of these managerial positions in health care organizations include supervisor, coordinator, and director, among others (see Table 1-2). These levels of managerial control are discussed in more detail in the next section.
Managers implement six management functions as they carry out the process of management (Longest et al., 2000):
Planning: This function requires the manager to set a direction and determine
what needs to be accomplished. It means setting priorities and determining performance targets.
Organizing: This management function refers to the overall design of the organization or the specific division, unit, or service for which the manager is responsible. Furthermore, it means designating reporting relationships and intentional patterns of interaction. Determining positions, teamwork assignments, and distribution of authority and responsibility are critical components of this function.
Staffing: This function refers to acquiring and retaining human resources. It also refers to developing and maintaining the workforce through various strategies and tactics.
Controlling: This function refers to monitoring staff activities and performance and taking the appropriate actions for corrective action to increase performance.
Directing: The focus in this function is on initiating action in the organization through effective leadership and motivation of, and communication with, subordinates.
Decision making: This function is critical to all of the aforementioned management functions and means making effective decisions based on consideration of benefits and the drawbacks of alternatives.
In order to effectively carry out these functions, the manager needs to possess several key competencies. Katz (1974) identified key competencies of the effective manager, including conceptual, technical, and interpersonal skills. The term competency refers to a state in which an individual has the requisite or adequate ability or qualities to perform certain functions (Ross, Wenzel, & Mitlyng, 2002). These are defined as follows:
Conceptual skills are those skills that involve the ability to critically analyze and solve complex problems. Examples: a manager conducts an analysis of the best way to provide a service or determines a strategy to reduce patient complaints regarding food service.
Technical skills are those skills that reflect expertise or ability to perform a specific work task. Examples: a manager develops and implements a new incentive compensation program for staff or designs and implements modifications to a computer-based staffing model.
Interpersonal skills are those skills that enable a manager to communicate
with and work well with other individuals, regardless of whether they are peers, supervisors, or subordinates. Examples: a manager counsels an employee whose performance is below expectation or communicates to subordinates the desired performance level for a service for the next fiscal year.
MANAGEMENT POSITIONS: THE CONTROL IN THE ORGANIZATIONAL HEIRARCHY Management positions within health care organizations are not confined to the top level; because of the size and complexity of many health care organizations, management positions are found throughout the organization. Management positions exist at the lower, middle, and upper levels; the upper level is referred to as senior management. The hierarchy of management means that authority, or power, is delegated downward in the organization, and lower-level managers have less authority than higher-level managers, whose scope of responsibility is much greater. For example, a vice president of Patient Care Services in a hospital may be in charge of several different functional areas, such as nursing, diagnostic imaging services, and laboratory services; in contrast, a director of Medical Records—a lower-level position—has responsibility only for the function of patient medical records. Furthermore, a supervisor within the Environmental Services department may have responsibility for only a small housekeeping staff, whose work is critical, but confined to a defined area of the organization. Some managerial positions, such as those discussed previously, are line manager positions because the manager supervises other employees; other managerial positions are staff manager positions because they carry out work and advise their bosses, but they do not routinely supervise others. Managerial positions also vary in terms of required expertise or experience. Some positions require extensive knowledge of many substantive areas and significant working experience, and other positions are more appropriate for entry-level managers who have limited or no experience.
The most common organizational structure for health care organizations is a functional organizational structure, whose key characteristic is a pyramid- shaped hierarchy that defines the functions carried out and the key management positions assigned to those functions (see Figure 1-2). The size and complexity of the specific health services organization will dictate the particular structure. For example, larger organizations—such as large community hospitals, hospital
systems, and academic medical centers—will likely have deep vertical structures reflecting varying levels of administrative control for the organization. This structure is necessary due to the large scope of services provided and the corresponding vast array of administrative and support services that are needed to enable the delivery of clinical services. Other characteristics associated with this functional structure include a strict chain of command and line of reporting, which ensure communication and assignment and evaluation of tasks are carried out in a linear command and control environment. This structure offers key advantages, such as specific divisions of labor and clear lines of reporting and accountability.
Other administrative structures have been adopted by health care organizations, usually in combination with a functional structure. These include matrix, or team-based, models and service line management models. The matrix model recognizes that a strict functional structure may limit the organization’s flexibility to carry out the work, and that the expertise of other disciplines is needed on a continuous basis. An example of the matrix method is when functional staff, such as nursing and rehabilitation personnel, are assigned to a specific program, such as geriatrics, and they report for programmatic purposes to the program director of the geriatrics department. Another example is when clinical and administrative staff are assigned to a team investigating new services that is headed by a marketing or business development manager. In both of these examples, management would lead staff who traditionally are not under their direct administrative control. Advantages of this structure include improved lateral communication and coordination of services, as well as pooled knowledge.
In service line management, a manager is appointed to head a specific clinical service line and has responsibility and accountability for staffing, resource acquisition, budget, and financial control associated with the array of services provided under that service line. Typical examples of service lines include cardiology, oncology (cancer), women’s services, physical rehabilitation, and behavioral health (mental health). Service lines can be established within a single organization or may cut across affiliated organizations, such as within a hospital system where services are provided at several different affiliated facilities (Boblitz & Thompson, 2005). Some facilities have found that the service line management model for selected clinical services has resulted in many benefits, such as lower costs, higher quality of care, and greater patient satisfaction, compared to other management models (Duffy & Lemieux, 1995). The service line management model is usually implemented within an organization in conjunction with a functional structure, as the organization may choose to give special emphasis and
additional resources to one or a few services lines.
FIGURE 1-2 Functional Organizational Structure
FOCUS OF MANAGEMENT: SELF, UNIT/TEAM, AND ORGANIZATION Effective health care management involves exercising professional judgment and skills and carrying out the aforementioned managerial functions at three levels: self, unit/team, and organization wide. First and foremost, the individual manager must be able to effectively manage himself or herself. This means managing time, information, space, and materials; being responsive and following through with peers, supervisors, and clients; maintaining a positive attitude and high motivation; and keeping a current understanding of management techniques and substantive issues of health care management. Drucker (2005) suggests that managing yourself also involves knowing your strengths, how you perform, your values, where you belong, and what you can contribute, as well as taking responsibility for your relationships. Managing yourself also means developing and applying appropriate technical, interpersonal, and conceptual skills and competencies and being comfortable with them, in order to be able to effectively move to the next level— that of supervising others.
The second focus of management is the unit/team level. The expertise of the manager at this level involves managing others in terms of effectively completing
the work. Regardless of whether you are a senior manager, mid-level manager, or supervisor, you will be “supervising” others as expected in your assigned role. This responsibility includes assigning work tasks, review and modification of assignments, monitoring and review of individual performance, and carrying out the management functions described earlier to ensure excellent delivery of services. This focal area is where the actual work gets done. Performance reflects the interaction of the manager and the employee, and it is incumbent on the manager to do what is needed to shape the performance of individual employees. The focus of management at this echelon recognizes the task interdependencies among staff and the close coordination that is needed to ensure that work gets completed efficiently and effectively.
The third management focus is at the organizational level. This focal area reflects the fact that managers must work together as part of the larger organization to ensure organization-wide performance and organizational viability. In other words, the success of the organization depends upon the success of its individual parts, and effective collaboration is needed to ensure that this occurs. The range of clinical and nonclinical activities that occur within a health care organization requires that managers who head individual units work closely with other unit managers to provide services. Sharing of information, collaboration, and communication are essential for success. The hierarchy looks to the contribution of each supervised unit as it pertains to the whole. Individual managers’ contributions to the overall performance of the organization—in terms of various performance measures such as cost, quality, satisfaction, and access—are important and measured.
ROLE OF THE MANAGER IN ESTABLISHING AND MAINTAINING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE Every organization has a distinct culture, known as the beliefs, attitudes, and behavior that are shared among organizational members. Organizational culture is commonly defined as the character, personality, and experience of organizational life i.e., what the organization really “is” (Scott, Mannion, Davies, & Marshall, 2003). Culture prescribes the way things are done, and is defined, shaped, and reinforced by the management team. All managers play a role in establishing the culture of a health care organization, and in taking the necessary leadership action to sustain, and in some cases change, the culture. Culture is
shaped by the values, mission, and vision for the organization. Values are principles the organization believes in and shape the organization’s purpose, goals, and day-to-day behaviors. Adopted values provide the foundation for the organization’s activities and include such principles as respect, quality service, and innovation. The mission of the organization is its fundamental purpose, or what the organization seeks to achieve. The vision of the organization specifies the desired future state for the organization and reflects what the organization wants to be known and recognized for in the future. Statements of values, mission, and vision result from the organizational strategic planning process. These statements are communicated widely throughout the organization and to the community and shape organizational strategic and operational actions. Increasingly, organizations are establishing codes of conduct or standards of behavior that all employees must follow (Studer, 2003). These standards of behavior align with the values, mission, and vision. The role of managers in the oversight of standards of behavior is critical in several respects: for setting expectations for staff behavior, modelling the behavior, measuring staff performance, and improving staff performance. Mid- level and lower-level managers are instrumental to organization-wide adoption and embracing of the culture as they communicate desired behaviors and reinforce culture through modelling expectations through their own behaviors. For example, a value of customer service or patient focus requires that managers ensure proper levels of service by their employees via clarifying expectations and providing internal customer service to their own staff and other managers. Furthermore, managers can measure and evaluate employee compliance with organizational values and standards of behavior by reviewing employee performance and working with staff to improve performance. Performance evaluation will be explored in a later chapter in this text.
ROLE OF THE MANAGER IN TALENT MANAGEMENT In order to effectively master the focal areas of management and carry out the required management functions, management must have the requisite number and types of highly motivated employees. From a strategic perspective, health care organizations compete for labor, and it is commonly accepted today that high- performing health care organizations are dependent upon individual human performance, as discussed further in Chapter 12. Many observers have advocated for health care organizations to view their employees as strategic assets who can
create a competitive advantage (Becker, Huselid, & Ulrich, 2001). Therefore, human resources management has been replaced in many health care organizations with talent management. The focus has shifted to securing and retaining the talent needed to do the job in the best way, rather than simply filling a role (Huselid, Beatty, & Becker, 2005). As a result, managers are now focusing on effectively managing talent and workforce issues because of the link to organizational performance (Griffith, 2009).
Beyond recruitment, managers are concerned about developing and retaining those staff who are excellent performers. Many health care organizations are creating high-involvement organizations that identify and meet employee needs through their jobs and the larger organizational work setting (Becker et al., 2001). One of the critical responsibilities of managers in talent management is promoting employee engagement, which describes the motivation and commitment of staff to contribute to the organization. There are several strategies used by managers to develop and sustain employee engagement, as well as to develop and maintain excellent performers. These include formal methods such as offering training programs; providing leadership development programs; identifying employee needs and measuring employee satisfaction through engagement surveys; providing continuing education, especially for clinical and technical fields; and enabling job enrichment. In addition, managers use informal methods such as conducting periodic employee reviews, soliciting employee feedback, conducting rounds and employee huddles, offering employee suggestion programs, and other methods of managing employee relations and engagement. These topics are explored in more detail in a later chapter in this book.
ROLE OF THE MANAGER IN ENSURING HIGH PERFORMANCE At the end of the day, the role of the manager is to ensure that the unit, service, division, or organization he or she leads achieves high performance. What exactly is meant by high performance? To understand performance, one has to appreciate the value of setting and meeting goals and objectives for the unit/service and organization as a whole, in terms of the work that is being carried out. Goals and objectives are desired end points for activity and reflect strategic and operational directions for the organization. They are specific, measurable, meaningful, and time oriented. Goals and objectives for individual units should reflect the
overarching needs and expectations of the organization as a whole because, as the reader will recall, all entities are working together to achieve high levels of overall organizational performance. Studer (2003) views the organization as needing to be results oriented, with identified pillars of excellence as a framework for the specific goals of the organization. These pillars are people (employees, patients, and physicians), service, quality, finance, and growth. Griffith (2000) refers to high- performing organizations as being championship organizations—that is, they expect to perform well on different yet meaningful measures of performance. Griffith further defines the “championship processes” and the need to develop performance measures in each of the following: governance and strategic management; clinical quality, including customer satisfaction; clinical organization (caregivers); financial planning; planning and marketing; information services; human resources; and plant and supplies. For each championship process, the organization should establish measures of desired performance that will guide the organization. Examples of measures include medication errors, surgical complications, patient satisfaction, staff turnover rates, employee satisfaction, market share, profit margin, and revenue growth, among others. In turn, respective divisions, units, and services will set targets and carry out activities to address key performance processes. The manager’s job, ultimately, is to ensure these targets are met by carrying out the previously discussed management functions. A control process for managers has been advanced by Ginter, Swayne, and Duncan (2002) that describes five key steps in the performance management process: set objectives, measure performance, compare performance with objectives, determine reasons for deviation, and take corrective action. Management’s job is to ensure that performance is maintained or, if below expectations, improved.
Stakeholders, including insurers, state and federal governments, and consumer advocacy groups, are expecting, and in many cases demanding, acceptable levels of performance in health care organizations. These groups want to make sure that services are provided in a safe, convenient, low-cost, and high-quality environment. For example, The Joint Commission (formerly JCAHO) has set minimum standards for health care facilities operations that ensure quality, the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) has set standards for measuring performance of health plans, and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has established a website that compares hospital performance along a number of critical dimensions. In addition, CMS has provided incentives to health care organizations by paying for performance on measures of clinical care and not paying for care resulting from never events i.e.,
shocking health outcomes that should never occur in a health care setting such as wrong site surgery (e.g., the wrong leg) or hospital-acquired infections (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, n.d.). Health insurers also have implemented pay-for-performance programs for health care organizations based on various quality and customer service measures.
In addition to meeting the reporting requirements of the aforementioned organizations, many health care organizations today use varying methods of measuring and reporting the performance measurement process. Common methods include developing and using dashboards or balanced scorecards that allow for a quick interpretation of organizational performance across a number of key measures (Curtright, Stolp-Smith, & Edell, 2000; Pieper, 2005). Senior administration uses these methods to measure and communicate performance on the total organization to the governing board and other critical constituents. Other managers use these methods at the division, unit, or service level to profile its performance. In turn, these measures are also used to evaluate managers’ performance and are considered in decisions by the manager’s boss regarding compensation adjustments, promotions, increased or reduced responsibility, training and development, and, if necessary, termination or reassignment.
ROLE OF THE MANAGER IN LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT AND SUCCESSION PLANNING Because health care organizations are complex and experience challenges from internal and external environments, the need for leadership skills of managers at all levels of the organization has become paramount. Successful organizations that demonstrate high operational performance depend on strong leaders (Squazzo, 2009). Senior executives have a primary role in ensuring managers throughout the organization have the knowledge and skills to provide effective leadership to achieve desired levels of organizational performance. Senior management also plays a key role in succession planning to ensure vacancies at mid- and upper levels of the organization due to retirements, departures, and promotions are filled with capable leaders. Therefore, key responsibilities of managers are to develop future leaders through leadership development initiatives and to engage in succession planning.
Leadership development programs are broadly comprised of several specific organizational services that are offered to enhance leadership competencies and
skills of managerial staff in health care organizations. Leadership development is defined as educational interventions and skill-building activities designed to improve the leadership capabilities of individuals (Kim & Thompson, 2012; McAlearney, 2005). Such initiatives not only serve to increase leadership skills and behaviors, but also ensure stability within organizational talent and culture through career advancement and succession planning (Burt, 2005). In order to embrace leadership development, managers provide technical and psychological support to the staff through a range of leadership development activities:
Leadership development program: Training and leadership development on a variety of required topics, through a formally designated program, using structured learning and competency-based assessment using various formats, media, and locations (Kim & Thompson, 2012)
Courses on leadership and management: Didactic training through specific courses offered face-to-face, online, or in hybrid form (Garman, 2010; Kim & Thompson, 2012)
Mentoring: Formal methods used by the organization for matching aspiring leaders with mid-level and senior executives to assist in their learning and personal growth (Garman, 2010; Landry & Bewley, 2010)
Personal development coaching: Usually reserved for upper-level executives; these formal organizational efforts assist in improving performance by shaping attitudes and behavior and focusing on personal skills development (Garman, 2010; Scott, 2009)
Job enlargement: The offering of expanded responsibilities, developmental assignments, and special projects to individuals to cultivate leadership skills for advancement advance within the organization (Fernandez-Aaroz, 2014; Garman, 2010; Landry & Bewley, 2010)
360-degree performance feedback: Expensive, labor-intensive, and usually reserved for upper-level executives; a multisource feedback approach where an individual staff member or manager receives an assessment of performance from several key individuals (e.g., peers, superiors, other managers, and subordinates) regarding performance and opportunities for improvement (Garman, 2010; Landry & Bewley, 2010)
Leadership development programs have shown positive results. For example, health systems report benefits such as improvement of skills and quality of the workforce, enhancing organizational efficiency in educational activities, and reducing staff turnover and related expenses when leadership training is tied to
organization-wide strategic priorities (McAlearney, 2005). In addition, hospitals with leadership development programs have been found to have higher volumes of patients, higher occupancy, higher net patient revenue, and higher total profit margin when compared to hospitals without these programs (Thompson & Kim, 2013). Studies have also shown that leadership development programs in health systems are related to greater focus on employee growth and development, improved employee retention, and greater focus on organizational strategic priorities (McAlearney, 2010). Finally, within a single health system, a leadership development program led to greater market share, reduced employee turnover, and improved core quality measures (Ogden, 2007). However, one of the key drawbacks to leadership development programs is the cost of developing and operating the programs (Squazzo, 2009).
Due to the competitive nature of health care organizations and the need for highly motivated and skilled employees, managers are faced with the challenge of succession planning for their organizations. Succession planning refers to the concept of taking actions to ensure staff can move up in management roles within the organization to replace those managers who retire or move to other opportunities in other organizations. Succession planning has most recently been emphasized at the senior level of organizations, in part due to the large number of retirements that are anticipated from Baby Boomer chief executive officers (CEOs) (Burt, 2005). To continue the emphasis on high performance within health care organizations, CEOs and other senior managers are interested in finding and nurturing leadership talent within their organizations who can assume the responsibility and carry forward the important work of these organizations.
Health care organizations are currently engaged in several practices to address leadership succession needs. First, mentoring programs for junior management that includes the participation of senior management have been advocated as a good way to prepare future health care leaders (Rollins, 2003). Mentoring studies show that mentors view their efforts as helpful to the organization (Finley, Ivanitskaya, & Kennedy, 2007). Some observers suggest having many mentors is essential to capturing the necessary scope of expertise, experience, interest, and contacts to maximize professional growth (Broscio & Scherer, 2003). Mentoring middle-level managers for success as they transition to their current positions is also helpful in preparing those managers for future executive leadership roles (Kubica, 2008).
A second method of succession planning is through formal leadership development programs. These programs are intended to identify management potential throughout an organization by targeting specific skill sets of individuals
and assessing their match to specific jobs, such as vice president or chief operating officer (COO). One way to implement this is through talent reviews, which, when done annually, help create a pool of existing staff who may be excellent candidates for further leadership development and skill strengthening through the establishment of development plans. Formal programs that are being established by many health care organizations focus on high-potential people (Burt, 2005). Thompson and Kim (2013) found that 48% of community hospitals offered a leadership development program, and McAlearney (2010) reported that about 50% of hospital systems nationwide had an executive-level leadership development program. However, many health care organizations have developed programs that address leadership development at all levels of the organization, not just the executive level, and require all managers to participate in these programs to strengthen their managerial and leadership skills and to contribute to organizational performance.
ROLE OF THE MANAGER IN INNOVATION AND CHANGE MANAGEMENT Due to the pace of change in the health services industry and the complexity of health services organizations, the manager plays a significant role in leading innovation and spearheading change management. Health services organizations cannot remain static. The environmental forces discussed earlier in this chapter strongly point to the need for organizations to respond and adapt to these external influences. In addition, achieving and maintaining high performance outcomes or results is dependent on making improvements to the organizational structure and processes. Moreover, managers are encouraged to embrace innovation to identify creative ways to improve service and provide care effectively and efficiently.
Innovation and change management are intricately related, but different, competencies. Hamel (2007) describes management innovation and operational innovation. Management innovation addresses the organization’s management processes as the practices and routines that determine how the work of management gets conducted on a daily basis. These include such practices as internal communications, employment assessment, project management, and training and development. In contrast, operational innovation addresses the organization’s business processes. In the health care setting, these include processes such as customer service, procurement of supplies and supply chain
changes, care coordination across staff, and development and use of clinical procedures and practices. Some operational innovation is structural in nature and involves acquisition of information and clinical products, such as electronic medical/health records, or a new device or procedure, such as robotic surgery or new medications (Staren, Braun, & Denny, 2010). There are specific skills needed by managers to be innovators in management. These skills include thinking creatively about ways to proactively change management and operational practices to improve the organization. It also involves a willingness to test these innovative practices and assess their impact. Also, a manager must facilitate recruitment and development of employees who embrace creativity and innovation. Having innovative clinical and administrative staff is critical to implementing operational innovation. A culture of innovation depends upon staff who are generating ideas for operational innovation, and the manager is a linchpin in establishing a culture of innovation that supports idea generation. Recent studies of innovative and creative companies found that leaders should rely on all staff collaborating by helping one another and engaging in a dynamic process of seeking and giving feedback, ideas, and assistance (Amabile, Fisher, & Pillemer, 2014). Several barriers to innovation have been identified. These barriers include lack of an innovation culture that supports idea generation, lack of leadership in innovation efforts, and high costs of making innovative changes (Harrington & Voehl, 2010). In addition, formal rules and regulations, professional standards, and administrative policies may all work against innovation (Dhar, Griffin, Hollin, & Kachnowski, 2012). Finally, daily priorities and inertia reflecting the status quo that cause managers to focus on routines and day-to-day tasks limit staff ability to be creative, engage in discovery, and generate ideas (Dhar et al., 2012).
Organizational change, or change management, is related to but different from innovation. Organizational change is a structured management approach to improving the organization and its performance. Knowledge of performance gaps is a necessary prerequisite to change management, and managers must routinely assess their operational activities and performance and make adjustments in the work structure and processes to improve performance (Thompson, 2010). Managing organizational change has become a significant responsibility of managers and a key competency for health care managers (Buchbinder & Thompson, 2010). Managing the change process within health care organizations is critical because appropriately and systematically managing change can result in improved organizational performance. However, change is difficult and the change process creates both staff resistance and support for a change.
A process model of change management has been suggested by Longest et al.
(2000). This rational, problem-based model identifies four key steps in systematically understanding and managing the change process: (1) identification of the need for change, (2) planning for implementing the change, (3) implementing the change, and (4) evaluating the change.
There are several key management competencies that health care managers need to possess to effectively manage change within their organizations. Thompson (2010) suggests that managers:
–Embrace change and be a change agent; –Employ a change management process; –Effectively address support and resistance to change; –Use change management to make the organization innovative and successful
in the future; and, –Recruit staff and succession plan with change management in mind.
ROLE OF THE MANAGER IN HEALTH CARE POLICY As noted earlier in this chapter, managers must consider both their external and internal domains as they carry out management functions and tasks. One of the critical areas for managing the external world is to be knowledgeable about health policy matters under consideration at the state and federal levels that affect health services organizations and health care delivery. This is particularly true for senior- level managers. This awareness is necessary to influence policy in positive ways that will help the organization and limit any adverse impacts. Staying current with health care policy discussions, participating in deliberations of health policy, and providing input where possible will allow health care management voices to be heard. Because health care is such a popular yet controversial topic in the U.S. today, continuing changes in health care delivery are likely to emanate from the legislative and policy processes at the state and federal levels. For example, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, signed into law in 2010 as a major health care reform initiative, has had significant implications for health care organizations in terms of patient volumes, reimbursement for previously uninsured patients, and the movement to improve population health and develop value-based purchasing. Other recent federal policy changes include cuts in Medicare reimbursement and increases in reporting requirements. State legislative
changes across the country affect reimbursement under Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance Program, licensure of facilities and staff, certificate of need rules for capital expenditures and facility and service expansions, and state requirements on mandated health benefits and modified reimbursements for insured individuals that affect services offered by health care organizations.
In order to understand and influence health policy, managers must strive to keep their knowledge current. This can be accomplished through targeted personal learning, networking with colleagues within and outside of their organizations, and participating in professional associations, such as the American College of Healthcare Executives and the Medical Group Management Association. These organizations, and many others, monitor health policy discussions and advocate for their associations’ interests at the state and federal levels. Knowledge gained through these efforts can be helpful in shaping health policy in accordance with the desires of health care managers.
RESEARCH IN HEALTH CARE MANAGEMENT Current research in management focuses on best practices. For example, the best practices of managers and leaders in ensuring organizational performance has been the focus of work by McAlearney, Robbins, Garman, and Song (2013) and Garman, McAlearney, Harrison, Song, and McHugh (2011). The best practices identified by these researchers include staff engagement, staff acquisition and development, staff frontline empowerment, and leadership alignment and development. Understanding what leaders do to develop their staff and prepare lower-level managers for leadership roles has been a common research focus as well. Leadership development programs have been examined in terms of their structure and impact. McAlearney (2008) surveyed health care organizations and key informants to determine the availability of leadership development programs and their role in improving quality and efficiency, and found these programs enhanced the skills and quality of the workforce, improved efficiency in educational development, and reduced staff turnover. A study of high-performing health organizations found various practices are used to develop leaders internally, including talent reviews to identify candidates for upward movement, career development planning, job rotations, and developmental assignments (McHugh, Garman, McAlearney, Song, & Harrison, 2010). In addition, a 2010 study examined leadership development in health and non-health care organizations and found best practices included 360-degree performance evaluation, mentoring,
coaching, and experiential learning (National Center for Healthcare Leadership, 2010). A study of U.S. health systems found about half of health systems offered a leadership development program and also found that leadership development initiatives helped the systems focus on employee growth and development and improved employee retention (McAlearney, 2010). As noted earlier in this chapter, some recent studies have examined the characteristics of leadership development programs in hospitals, finding correlations of programs with size, urban location, and not-for-profit ownership status (Kim and Thompson, 2012; Thompson and Kim, 2013). A new area of management research is the participation of early careerists in leadership development programs, and recent evidence shows that some leadership development activities are of more interest to staff than others (Thompson and Temple, 2015). A number of important areas of management research exist today, and include looking at the effect of leadership development training on specific decision-making by managers, career progression due to participation in leadership development, and the impact of collaboration among staff on firm innovation and performance (Amabile, Fisher, & Pillemer, 2014).
CHAPTER SUMMARY The profession of health care management is challenging yet rewarding, and requires persons in managerial positions at all levels of the organization to possess sound conceptual, technical, and interpersonal skills to carry out the necessary managerial functions of planning, organizing, staffing, directing, controlling, and decision making. In addition, managers must maintain a dual perspective where they understand the external and internal domains of their organization and the need for development at the self, unit/team, and organization levels. Opportunities exist for managerial talent at all levels of a health care organization, including supervisory, middle-management, and senior-management levels. The role of manager is critical to ensuring a high level of organizational performance, and managers are also instrumental in establishing and maintaining organizational culture, talent recruitment and retention, leadership development and succession planning, innovation and change management, and shaping health care policy.
Note: Portions of this chapter were originally published as “Understanding Health Care Management” in Career Opportunities in Healthcare Management: Perspectives from the Field, by Sharon B. Buchbinder and Jon M. Thompson, and an adapted version of this chapter is reprinted here with permission of
1. Define health care management and health care managers.
2. Delineate the functions carried out by health care managers and give an example of a task in each function.
3. Explain why interpersonal skills are important in health care management.
4. Compare and contrast three models of organizational design.
5. Why is the health care manager’s role in ensuring high performance so critical? Explain.
6. Characterize the health care manager’s role in change management and assess the extent to which this has an impact on the success of the change process.
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Leadership Louis Rubino
LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this chapter, the student will be able to:
Distinguish between leadership and management; Summarize the history of leadership in the U.S. from the 1920s to current times;
Compare and contrast leadership styles, competencies, and protocols; Summarize old and new governance trends; Analyze key barriers and challenges to successful leadership; Provide a rationale for why health care leaders have a greater need for ethical behavior;
Explore important new initiatives requiring health care leaders’ engagement; and
Discuss special research issues related to leadership.
LEADERSHIP VS. MANAGEMENT In any business setting, there must be leaders as well as managers. But are these the same people? Not necessarily. There are leaders who are good managers and there are managers who are good leaders, but usually neither case is the norm. In health care, this is especially important to recognize because of the need for both. Health care is unique in that it is a service industry that depends on a large number of highly trained personnel as well as trade workers. Whatever the setting, be it a hospital, a long-term care facility, an ambulatory care center, a medical
device company, an insurance company, an accountable care organization, or some other health care entity, leaders as well as managers are needed to keep the organization moving in a forward direction and, at the same time, maintain current operations. This is done by leading and managing its people and assuring good business practices.
Leaders usually take a focus that is more external, whereas the focus of managers is more internal. Even though they need to be sure their health care facility is operating properly, leaders tend to spend the majority of their time communicating and aligning with outside groups that can benefit their organizations (partners, community, vendors) or influence them (government, public agencies, media). See Figure 2-1. There is crossover between leaders and managers across the various areas, though a distinction remains for certain duties and responsibilities.
Usually the top person in the organization (e.g., Chief Executive Officer, Administrator, Director) has full and ultimate accountability. This type of leader may be dictated by the current conditions faced by the organization. A more strategic leader, who defines purpose and vision and aligns people, processes, and values, may be needed. Or, a network leader, who could connect people across disciplines, organizational departments, and regions, may be essential. Whichever type surfaces, there will be several managers reporting to this person, all of whom have various functional responsibilities for different areas of the organization (e.g., Chief Nursing Officer, Physician Director, Chief Information Officer). These managers can certainly be leaders in their own areas, but their focus will be more internal within the organization’s operations. They are the operational leaders of the organization. Together, these three types of leaders/followers produce an interdependent leadership system, a team which will prove more high performing in the current health care field (Maccoby, Norman, Norman, & Margolies, 2013).
FIGURE 2-1 Leadership and Management Focus
Leaders have a particular set of competencies that require more forward thinking than those of managers. Leaders need to set a vision or direction for the organization. They need to be able to motivate their employees, as well as other stakeholders, so the business continues to exist and, hopefully, thrive in periods of change. No industry is as dynamic as health care, with rapid change occurring due to the complexity of the system and government regulations. Leaders are needed to keep the entity on course and to maneuver around obstacles, like a captain commanding his ship at sea. Managers must tend to the business at hand and make sure the staff is following proper procedures and meeting established targets and goals. They need a different set of competencies. See Table 2-1.
HISTORY OF LEADERSHIP IN THE U.S. Leaders have been around since the beginning of man. We think of the strongest
male becoming the leader of a caveman clan. In Plato’s time, the Greeks began to talk about the concept of leadership and acknowledged the political system as critical for leaders to emerge in a society. In Germany during the late 19th century, Sigmund Freud described leadership as unconscious exhibited behavior; later, Max Weber identified how leadership is present in a bureaucracy through assigned roles. Formal leadership studies in the U.S., though, have only been around for the last 100 years (Sibbet, 1997).
We can look at the decades spanning the 20th century to see how leadership theories evolved, placing their center of attention on certain key components at different times (Northouse, 2016). These emphases often matched or were adapted from the changes occurring in society.
With the industrialization of the U.S. in the 1920s, productivity was of paramount importance. Scientific management was introduced, and researchers tried to determine which characteristics were identified with the most effective leaders based on their units having high productivity. The Great Man Theory was developed out of the idea that certain traits determined good leadership. The traits that were recognized as necessary for effective leaders were ones that were already inherent in the person, such as being male, being tall, being strong, and even being Caucasian. Even the idea that “you either got it or you don’t” was supported by this theory, the notion being that a good leader had charisma. Behaviors were not considered important in determining what made a good leader. This theory discouraged anyone who did not have the specified traits from aspiring to a leadership position.
Fortunately, after two decades, businesses realized leadership could be enhanced through certain conscious acts, and researchers began to study which behaviors would produce better results. Resources were in short supply due to World War II, and leaders were needed who could truly produce good results.
This was the beginning of the Style Approach to Leadership. Rather than looking at only the characteristics of the leader, researchers started to recognize the importance of two types of behaviors in successful leadership: completing tasks and creating good relationships. This theory states leaders have differing degrees of concern over each of these behaviors, and the best leaders would be fully attentive to both.
In the 1960s, American society had a renewed emphasis on helping all of its people and began a series of social programs that still remain today. The two that impact health care directly, by providing essential services, are Medicare for the elderly (age 65 and over) and the disabled and Medicaid for the indigent population. The Situational Approach to Leadership then came into prominence and supported this national concern. This set of theories focused on the leader changing his or her behavior in certain situations in order to meet the needs of subordinates. This would imply a very fluid leadership process whereby one can adapt one’s actions to an employee’s needs at any given time.
Not much later, researchers believed perhaps leaders should not have to change how they behaved in a work setting, but instead the appropriate leaders should be selected from the very beginning. This is the Contingency Theory of Leadership and was very popular in the 1970s. Under this theory, the focus was on both the leader’s style as well as the situation in which the leader worked, thus building upon the two earlier theories. This approach was further developed by what is known as the Path–Goal Theory of Leadership. This theory still placed its attention on the leader’s style and the work situation (subordinate characteristics and work task structure) but also recognized the importance of setting goals for employees. The leader was expected to remove any obstacles in order to provide the support necessary for them to achieve those goals.
In the later 1970s, the U.S. was coming out of the Vietnam War, in which many of its citizens did not think the country should have been involved. More concern was expressed over relationships as the society became more psychologically attuned to how people felt. The Leader–Member Exchange Theory evolved over the concern that leadership was being defined by the leader, the follower, and the context. This new way of looking at leadership focused on the interactions that occur between the leaders and the followers. This theory claimed leaders could be more effective if they developed better relationships with their subordinates through high-quality exchanges.
After Vietnam and a series of weak political leaders, Americans were looking for people to take charge who could really make a difference. Charismatic leaders came back into vogue, as demonstrated by the support shown to President Ronald
Reagan, an actor turned politician. Unlike the Great Man Theory earlier in the century, this time the leader had to have certain skills to transform the organization through inspirational motivational efforts. Leadership was not centered upon transactional processes that tied rewards or corrective actions to performance. Rather, the transformational leader could significantly change an organization through its people by raising their consciousness, empowering them, and then providing the nurturing needed as they produced the results desired.
In the late 1980s, the U.S. started to look more globally for ways to have better production. Total Quality Management became a popular concept and arose from researchers studying Japanese principles of managing production lines. In the health care setting, this was embraced through a process still used today called Continuous Quality Improvement or Performance Improvement. In the decade to follow, leaders assigned subordinates to a series of work groups in order to focus on a particular area of production. Attention was placed on developing the team for higher level functioning and on how a leader could create a work environment that could improve the performance of the team. Individual team members were expendable, and the team entity was all important.
We have entered the 21st century with some of the greatest leadership challenges ever in the health care field. Critical personnel shortages, limited resources, and increased governmental regulations provide an environment that yearns for leaders who are attentive to the organization and its people, yet can still address the big picture. Several of today’s leadership models relate well to the dynamism of the health care field and are presented here. Looking at these models, there seems to be a consistent pattern of self-aware leaders who are concerned for their employees and understand the importance of meaningful work. As we entered the 2000s, leaders needed to use Adaptive Leadership to create flexible organizations able to meet the relentless succession of challenges faced in health care and elsewhere (Heifetz, Grashow, & Linsky, 2009). Plus, today’s astute health care leaders recognize the importance of considering the global environment, as health care wrestles with international issues that impact us locally, such as outsourcing services, medical tourism, and over-the-border drug purchases, giving rise to the global leader. See Table 2-2.
CONTEMPORARY MODELS Today’s health care industry does not prescribe any one type of leadership model. Many leaders are successful drawing from a variety of traditional and
contemporary models. It is wise for the leadership student, as well as the practitioner, to become familiar with the various contemporary models so they can be utilized when appropriate. See Table 2-3.
Emotional Intelligence (EI) Emotional Intelligence (EI) is a concept made famous by Daniel Goleman in the late 1990s. It suggests that there are certain skills (intrapersonal and interpersonal) that a person needs to be well adjusted in today’s world. These skills include self-awareness (having a deep understanding of one’s emotions, strengths, weaknesses, needs, and drives), self-regulation (a propensity for reflection, an ability to adapt to changes, the power to say no to impulsive urges), motivation (being driven to achieve, being passionate about one’s profession, enjoying challenges), empathy (thoughtfully considering others’ feelings when interacting), and social skills (moving people in the direction you desire by your ability to interact effectively) (Freshman & Rubino, 2002).
Since September 11, 2001, leaders have needed to be more understanding of
their subordinates’ world outside of the work environment. EI, when applied to leadership, suggests a more caring, confident, enthusiastic boss who can establish good relations with workers. Researchers have shown that EI can distinguish outstanding leaders and strong organizational performance (Goleman, 1998). For health care as an industry and for health care managers, this seems like a good fit, especially during this time of change (Delmatoff & Lazarus, 2014). See Table 2-4.
Authentic Leadership The central focus of authentic leadership is that people will want to naturally associate with someone who is following their internal compass of true purpose (George & Sims, 2007). Leaders who follow this model are ones who know their authentic selves, define their values and leadership principles, understand what motivates them, build a strong support team, and stay grounded by integrating all aspects of their lives. Authentic leaders have attributes such as confidence, hope, optimism, resilience, high levels of integrity, and positive values (Brown & Gardner, 2007). Assessments given to leaders in a variety of international locations have provided the evidence-based knowledge that there is a correlation between authentic leadership and positive outcomes based on supervisor-rated performance (Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing, & Peterson, 2008).
Diversity Leadership Our new global society forces health care leaders to address matters of diversity, whether with their patient base or with their employees. This commitment to diversity is necessary for today’s leader to be successful. The environment must be assessed so goals can be set that embrace the concept of diversity in matters such as employee hiring and promotional practices, patient communication, and
governing board composition, to name a few. Strategies have to be developed to make diversity work for the organization. The leader who recognizes the importance of diversity and designs its acceptance into the organizational culture will be most successful (Warden, 1999). Health care leaders are called to be role models for cultural competency (see Chapter 14 for more on this important topic) and to be able to attract, mentor, and coach those of different, as well as similar, backgrounds (Dolan, 2009).
Servant Leadership Many people view health care as a very special type of work. Individuals usually work in this setting because they want to help people. Servant leadership applies this concept to top administration’s ability to lead, acknowledging that a health care leader is largely motivated by a desire to serve others. This leadership model breaks down the typical organizational hierarchy and professes the belief of building a community within an organization in which everyone contributes to the greater whole. A servant leader is highly collaborative and gives credit to others generously. This leader is sensitive to what motivates others and empowers all to win with shared goals and vision. Servant leaders use personal trust and respect to build bridges and use persuasion rather than positional authority to foster cooperation. This model works especially well in a not-for-profit setting, since it continues the mission of fulfilling the community’s needs rather than the organization’s (Swearingen & Liberman, 2004).
Spirituality Leadership The U.S. has experienced some very serious misrepresentations and misreporting by major health care companies, as reported by U.S. governmental agencies (e.g., Columbia/HCA, GlaxoSmithKline, HealthSouth). Trying to claim a renewed sense of confidence in the system, a model of leadership has emerged that focuses on spirituality. This spiritual focus does not imply a certain set of religious beliefs but emphasizes ethics, values, relationship skills, and the promotion of balance between work and self (Wolf, 2004). The goal under this model is to define our own uniqueness as human beings and to appreciate our spiritual depth. In this way, leaders can deepen their understanding and at the same time be more productive. These leaders have a positive impact on their workers and create a working environment that supports all individuals in finding meaning in what they do. They practice five common behaviors of effective leaders as described by Kouzes and Posner (1995): (1) Challenge the process, (2) Inspire a shared vision,
(3) Enable others to act, (4) Model the way, and (5) Encourage the heart, thus taking leadership to a new level.
Resilient Leadership Being a health care leader is an exciting yet challenging job. Much stress is placed on the executive and its takes a strong, resilient leader to overcome these pressures, bounce back, and keep the organization moving forward. Certain resilience-building practices can be used by the leader to build inner strength and perseverance (Wicks & Buck, 2013). A self-care protocol that includes self- awareness, alone time, mindfulness, and keeping a healthy perspective can be essential to not only the individual leader but also to coach his/her team members to avoid burnout and foster high staff morale.
The Emerging Health Care Leader Students of health administration do not become successful leaders overnight. It usually takes years of study and experience to become comfortable and proficient in the role. A basic foundation is necessary before a leader can emerge and certain strategies can be applied to help an individual build and grow their career (Baedke & Lamberton, 2015). Some of these include paying attention to one’s character, examining self-discipline, cultivating your personal brand, and to constantly network. The best leaders are ones who are continually learning and using this new knowledge to further their development as a leader in today’s changing health care world.
LEADERSHIP STYLES Models give us a broad understanding of someone’s leadership philosophy. Styles demonstrate a particular type of leadership behavior that is consistently used. Various authors have attempted to explain different leadership styles (Northouse, 2015; Studer, 2008). Some styles are more appropriate to use with certain health care workers, depending on their education, training, competence, motivation, experience, and personal needs. The environment must also be considered when deciding which style is the best fit.
In a coercive leadership style power is used inappropriately to get a desired response from a follower. This very directive format should probably not be used unless the leader is dealing with a very problematic subordinate or is in an
emergency situation and needs immediate action. In health care settings over longer periods of time, three other leadership styles could be used more effectively: participative, pacesetting, and coaching.
Many health care workers are highly trained, specialized individuals who know much more about their area of expertise than their supervisor. Take the generally trained chief operating officer of a hospital who has several department managers (e.g., Imaging, Health Information Systems, Engineering) reporting to him or her. These managers will respond better and be more productive if the leader is participative in his or her style. Asking these managers for their input and giving them a voice in making decisions will let them know they are respected and valued.
In a pacesetting style, a leader sets high performance standards for his or her followers. This is very effective when the employees are self-motivated and highly competent—e.g., research scientists or intensive care nurses. A coaching style is recommended for the very top personnel in an organization. With this style, the leader focuses on the personal development of his or her followers rather than the work tasks. This should be reserved for followers the leader can trust and those who have proven their competence. See Table 2-5.
LEADERSHIP COMPETENCIES A leader needs certain skills, knowledge, and abilities to be successful. These are called competencies. The pressures of the health care industry have initiated the examination of a set of core competencies for a leader who works in a health care setting (Dye & Garman, 2015). Criticism has been directed at educational institutions for not producing administrators who can begin managing effectively right out of school. Educational programs in health administration are working with the national coalition groups (e.g., Health Leadership Council, National Center for Healthcare Leadership, and American College of Healthcare Executives) and health care administrative practitioners to come up with agreed upon competencies. Once identified, the programs can attempt to have their students learn how to develop these traits and behaviors.